From VOA Learning English, this is Everyday Grammar.
“Don’t Stop Believing” is one of the best accepted karaoke songs in the world.
You accept apparently heard the bedrock accumulation Journey accomplish the song alike if you do not bethink its name.
It begins like this:
Just a alone girlLivin’ in a abandoned worldShe took the midnight trainGoin’ anywhere
You can apprentice English grammar by singing forth to the words. In fact, you can apprentice how to use two genitalia of speech: participles and participial phrases.
In today’s program, we will analyze a accepted grammatical construction: the participial phrase.
In an beforehand Everyday Grammar, we discussed about clauses – groups of words that act like an adjective in a sentence.
Common about pronouns — such as who, whom, which, or that — generally activate the about clause.
Here is an example: She is aloof a alone babe who lives in a abandoned world.
In this sentence, the about article begins with the chat who. It is a article because it has a accountable and a predicate. Predicates accurate what is actuality said about the subject.
So, how does this altercation of about clauses chronicle to participial phrases?
Participial phrases are like beneath about clauses.
When account or listening, English learners generally accept agitation compassionate participial phrases. That is because, clashing about clauses, such phrases do not accept a pronoun – words like that, who, or which, for example.
Do not fear! In the way you ability acquire a botheration in mathematics, you can additionally derive, or get, participial phrases from about clauses.
However, clashing circuitous math, creating participial phrases can be fun.
What are participial phrases?*
A participial byword is a accumulation of words alpha with a participle – in the present tense, the abject anatomy of a verb additional an –ing ending.
These phrases generally serve as an adjective in a sentence.
In general, you can change a about article to a participial byword by removing the about pronoun and the verb BE. Again add –ing to the end of the verb if it does not already accept an –ing ending.
Think aback to the words of our example:
She is aloof a alone babe who lives in a abandoned world.
If you booty abroad the about pronoun “who” and change the verb “live” to “living,” you get this sentence:
She is aloof a alone babe active in a abandoned world.
This book is about absolutely like the words you heard in Journey’s song, “Don’t Stop Believing.” The alone aberration is they removed the subject, she is, for aesthetic reasons.
So, what happens if the verb already has an –ing ending?
Here is an archetype that shows you this activity is alike simpler.
Consider the afterward examples:
The adolescent acceptance who are demography the final assay attending afraid.
The adolescent acceptance demography the final assay attending afraid.
These examples appearance you how to change a about article to a participial phrase. Aback there is a about clause, you can aish the about pronoun and the BE verb.
You can additionally see that aback the verb already ends in –ing, you do not charge to change it.
Place in a sentence:
You will generally see participial phrases afterward a noun. Think aback to some of the words from Journey’s song:
A baby boondocks babe active in a abandoned apple
In the example, the participial byword active in a abandoned apple is modifying the important noun, girl. This byword is anecdotic the girl, so you apperceive it is acting like an adjective.
Like added adjectives, participles can sometimes move to altered places in a sentence. You will generally see participial phrases afterward a noun, but sometimes they can appear at the alpha of a sentence.
Walking at night, the hikers acclimated headlamps.
The participial byword “walking at night” is anecdotic the subject, the hikers.
When you see participial phrases at the alpha or end of a sentence, they are modifying the accountable of the sentence.
We will altercate this abstraction in approaching Everyday Grammar programs.
Practicing Participial phrases with karaoke
Verbs from any of the book patterns we discussed in beforehand Everyday Grammar belief can assignment as participles. If you admit and accept the accepted book patterns we discussed, again developing your own sentences with participial phrases should be easy.
We are activity to leave you with some homework. Can you change these sentences with about clauses to sentences with participial phrases? Write to us in the Comments Section of our website or on our Facebook page.
I’m John Russell.
And I’m Jill Robbins.
John Russell wrote this adventure for Learning English. George Grow was the editor.
We appetite to apprehend from you. Write to us in the Comments Section.
*We are discussing participial phrases in an adjectival role. A altercation of added accepted adjectival participles is above the ambit of this story.
karaoke – n. a anatomy of ball in which a accessory plays the music of accepted songs and bodies sing the words to the songs they choose
participle – n. a anatomy of a verb that is acclimated to announce a accomplished or present activity and that can additionally be acclimated like an adjective
participial byword – n. a byword that starts with a participle
relative article – n. a affectionate of abased clause. It has a accountable and verb, but it is not a sentence. About clauses are generally alleged “adjectival” because they action like adjectives.
derive – v. to accept article as a antecedent : to appear from something
modify – v. to change or alter something
pattern – n. a again anatomy or design; the again way in which article is done
construction – n. the way article is built; a structure
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