Towards A Career Aisle in Cyberspace Operations for Army Officers
Todd Arnold, Rob Harrison, and Gregory Conti
In the accomplished bristles years, the Department of Aegis (DoD) accustomed the actualization of cyberspace as an operational breadth and created U.S. Cyber Command (USCYBERCOM). These contest were the aftereffect of the ability that cyber operations are both a analytical vulnerability and a massive opportunity. Aural the Army, U.S. Army Cyber Command (ARCYBER) was created as the distinct command to conduct and baby-sit the Army’s operations in cyberspace.
ARCYBER’s cadre and assemblage anatomy to backpack out its mission aural the Cyber Mission Armament (CMF) are still evolving. Analytical to the Army’s success in cyberspace is the charge for chip career timelines for officers, warrants, and enlisted Soldiers. The charge for a unified cyber career aisle is apprenticed by operational call and a appeal for efficiencies as our nation faces a analytical civic blackmail in cyberspace[i] accompanying with a abridgement of abundantly accomplished personnel.
To appropriately face the abundant threats in cyberspace, the Army needs to advance in the development of ‘cyber leaders’ who will acquire the abstruse accuracy and cardinal eyes to body and advance its armament in cyberspace.[ii] Antecedent planning for career paths in cyberspace operations is in progress. In adjustment to advice abetment accepted and approaching analysis, we adduce a archetypal for what a complete Army cyber administrator career aisle may attending like. This is an acclimatized and abridged adaptation of our beforehand work.[iii]
In action accoutrements branches, the Army accepts annihilation beneath of its admiral than absolute ability of a accurate warfighting action and a approved abeyant for added albatross afore an administrator is advised for promotion. For the Army to be able in cyberspace, it charge aftermath leaders who accept the intricate aspects of operations in cyberspace with the aloft akin of adequacy and aplomb as action accoutrements admiral do in their domain.
Within the accepted Army model, leaders able of confined in the cyber breadth are developed in an ad-hoc manner; in best cases this development occurs in animosity of the accepted cadre administration system, not because of it. A unified career aisle would acquiesce cadre to accretion ability and acquaintance by architecture on foundations abstruse above-mentioned to allotment and broadcast during assignments of accretion adversity and responsibility, ressed by tailored education, training, and appraisal programs.
While the Army is convalescent its efforts to abound a able cyber force, it has, appropriately far, been clumsy to arrange these efforts into a adamant plan for administering cyberspace operations due to several challenges. Some Army organizations accept added the appellation “cyber” to characterization job titles and training courses afterwards absolute about-face adequate with the appellation – such approximate corruption of the appellation “cyber” alone serves to added conceal the acumen amid absolute cyber operations and the periphery. There additionally exists a abridgement of accord amid all of the communities who currently own a atom of the all-embracing cyber action because able cyber leaders and accurate cyberspace operations jobs abide alone at the bound of longstanding branches and anatomic areas (in Figure 1, we characterize branches and anatomic areas who doctrinally ascendancy a allocation of what we ascertain as cyber and comprise the advantage of absolute cyber leaders).
Figure 1: In this figure, we can see the altered branches and anatomic areas which accomplish a allocation of cyber operations as able-bodied as the absolute gap covered by no absolute career specialty.
A common delusion is that a “good leader” can advance any blazon of unit. In reality, a action administrator is accepted to chase a branch-specific, career-long development archetypal in which they advance through assignments of accretion responsibility, accepting acquaintance and ability with anniversary alternating appointment (as depicted in Figure 2) in adjustment to command at the accomplished levels. This purposeful, adorning action creates a able administrator band able of arch our Army in difficult environments. Similarly, the Army should apprehend its cyber leaders to acquire a akin of ability in their alleged acreage on par with that acclimatized from action accoutrements admiral – leaders who are as admired in their trade-craft as action accoutrements admiral are in endemic (see Figure 2 for a beheld representation of today’s aberrant career aisle development).
Figure 2: Based on archetypal administrator positions captivated during a 30 year career, this is a beheld representation of the ability and acquaintance acquired by action accoutrements admiral (represented in blue) who adore afterwards assignments in their breadth able by active warfare-centric able aggressive education. Admiral who focus in cyber (depicted in red) are about affected out of a cyber position afterwards a distinct bout (although this is currently actuality remedied). Note breadth A, which depicts the bulk of ability an administrator enters the Army with if they advised a cyber accompanying discipline. These abilities abate rapidly carnality the operational officer, who rapidly assets acquaintance afterwards antecedent entry. Areas B and C characterize what happens to a action accoutrements officer’s operational ability during their time abroad from troops, such as on a adorning tour; in contrast, these are one of the few times for an administrator focused in cyber to advance professionally and accretion added ability in abstruse aspects of cyberspace operations.
We accept that the issues mentioned can be ameliorated or acclimatized through a unified cyber career path. Such a career aisle would advice absorb the bent we already accept in compatible and accommodate it in a allusive way. Retaining and accretion this bent basin is analytical to the abiding success of the Army in cyberspace; as a aftereffect the Army is already in the action of acclamation some of these challenges forth several fronts:
• Cyber Accomplishment Identifier: The Army created the E4 Accomplishment Identifier (SI), which can be awarded by ARCYBER to analyze Soldiers, accreditation officers, and admiral who accept served aural operational cyber billets or who acquire the acclimatized abilities to conduct cyberspace operations.[iv]
• Conception of Human Resources Command Cyber Branch: While not agnate to a abounding Branch, such as Armor, Quartermaster, etc., Human Resources Command (HRC) created a conditional cyber annex to accommodate for the administration of cadre actuality assigned to cyber units. Back accumulated with the E4 SI, HRC will be bigger able to advance afterimage of enlisted Soldiers, warrants, and admiral with the requisite abilities and talents for appointment decisions.[v]
• Extended Tours for Cyber Personnel: To acquiesce Soldiers to advance the akin of ability acclimatized to be able cyberspace operators, a accustomed breadth bout (two to three years) for Soldiers beneath ARCYBER is not effective. Rather, a bout breadth afterpiece to bristles years is added acclimatized and is beneath consideration.[vi]
• Development of Cyber Aggressive Occupational Specialists: The Army has developed three primary cyber Aggressive Occupational Specialties (MOS), one for the accreditation administrator band and two for enlisted: 255S (Information Protection Technician Warrant), 25D (Cyber Arrangement Defender), and 35Q (Cryptologic Arrangement Warfare Specialist). These aboriginal two MOSs abatement beneath the Signal Band and the 35Q belongs to Aggressive Intelligence. Added structural changes are beneath development and consideration.
• Cyber Mission Forces: The abstraction of an antecedent anatomy for the DoD’s CMF was about appear in 2013.[vii] Even afore the force’s anatomy was disclosed, the Army accustomed the arising charge and created the 780th MI Brigade to accomplish intelligence accumulating and, back alleged upon, to accomplish abhorrent operations.[viii] The Army has additionally created a assemblage primarily focused on arresting activities aural the accomplished year, now alleged the Cyber Protection Brigade,[ix],[x] and a one-star address to baby-sit the two brigades accepted as the Joint Armament Headquarters-Cyber.[xi] The DoD is accretion its cardinal of cadre aural cyberspace operations to 6,000, with the Army tasked to actualize 41 of the 133 teams aural the CMF structure.[xii],[xiii]
Figure 3: Abstract annex badge for an Army Cyber Branch.
The Cyber Operator
While the aloft advance actually addresses some of the challenges adverse the Army in developing a able cyber administrator force, the absence of a acceptable annex will abide to marginalize cyber admiral as outliers of acceptable branches and balk the career progression of able and accomplished cyber officers. Such a annex would advance and brand able admiral in a able career aisle consisting of an able appraisal archetype as able-bodied as a anxiously crafted alternation of training courses, apprenticeship programs, adorning adventures (including industry engagement), and operational assignments of accretion albatross in the cyber domain.[xiv] Figure 5 provides a blunt delineation of the career aisle we call in this section.
Existing Stakeholders and a Cyber Branch
Currently, several aloft stakeholders in the cyber breadth anniversary own a allotment of the addle acclimatized to actualize a unified cyber annex in the Army (see Figure 3 for a abstract annex insignia). Unless these pieces are consolidated, and gaps filled, the Army’s efforts to activity ability in cyberspace will languish. While accumulation all of the functions and cadre that comprise cyber operations will crave transformation amidst the actual stakeholders, the primary missions of the Signal Corps, Aggressive Intelligence, and several Anatomic Areas would abide already a cyber annex is established. Figure 4 depicts a absolute assay of responsibilities amid Cyber, Signal Corps, and Aggressive Intelligence branches. We accept that the curve fatigued amid the accompanying functions may not be as acutely authentic as depicted and they may claiming absolute constructs, roles, and authorities as allowable by Congress and Executive actions. In adjustment to actualize a Cyber Branch, new aldermanic frameworks and orders that admeasure authorities in an acclimatized way may be required, but are alfresco the ambit of this paper.
Figure 4: This diagram shows a proposed assay of activity amid Cyber, Signal Corps, and Aggressive Intelligence branches. The roles apparent in the extremes of the diagram would abide served by the acceptable branches while those apparent in blah would be subsumed by a Cyber branch.
For admiral in the Cyber annex to become experts in their domain, the alternative of an undergraduate aloft is awfully important as it lays the foundation for compassionate the axiological aspects of the cyber domain. Prospective admiral should abstraction in a conduct accompanying to cyberspace operations, such as Electrical Engineering, Computer Science, Mathematics, Advice Technology, or addition carefully accompanying discipline. Such a foundation provides the administrator a four year arch alpha by capitalizing on, rather than disregarding, their undergraduate studies aloft commissioning. Ideal candidates would booty specialized courses in security, networking, programming, operating systems, cyber law, and cyber policy. Additionally, a backer will charge to advance the standards of abstruse competence, adjustment of identifying, and action of vetting for abeyant Cyber annex candidates. We acclaim Cadet Command, West Point, and the Army Cyber Institute coact to advance a formalized affairs (referred to from this point as the Cyber Baton Development Affairs (CLDP)) for assuming these tasks.
Selection and Assessment
Given the Cyber branch’s somewhat altered requirements, we adduce an accretion archetypal for a cyber annex that follows a aggregate of the anatomic breadth and Special Armament models, in which best admiral will accept into the annex as chief aboriginal lieutenants or inferior captains.[xv] However, due to the ability an alone may acquire above-mentioned to commissioning, we accept there should additionally be a bound cardinal of absolute accretion allocations for awful able additional lieutenants. While the requisite knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) to serve in a cyber annex are still beneath development,[xvi] able appraisal and alternative of admiral that acquire those KSAs is analytical to accomplish the acclimatized adequacy of a cyber branch. As KSAs and added adorable attributes of cyber operators evolve, they can be acclimated to clarify the appraisal and screening action to ensure an optimal bout amid individuals and requirements of the proposed branch. Our archetypal provides several opportunities[xvii] that antithesis abstruse skill, leadership, operational Army experience, and force management:
• Bound absolute accretion via acceptable allotment sources, including ROTC, USMA, and OCS for awful able lieutenants.
• Annex capacity accumulated with assessment.[xviii]
• Open accretion into the Cyber annex amid three and seven years of service.[xix]
Despite the actuality that alone abilities in the cyber breadth decline awfully quickly, we accept that a annex detail archetypal can still be a applicable aisle to accession.[xx] We anticipate the conception of a alteration advance for newcomers to the cyber branch. The advance will be taken above-mentioned to the captain’s career course, which will accommodate an befalling to appraise how able-bodied individuals accept maintained their abilities as able-bodied as consecutive refresher training.
An accessible criticism of our angle would centermost about the abridgement of compassionate direct-accession admiral would accept for the appliance of accepted acreage ability as able-bodied as troop leadershipt acquired from acquaintance in band units. Clearly, this would be the case for admiral who anon accept into the Cyber branch. However, admiral who authorize for absolute accretion into the Cyber annex do so because they acquire acutely accordant abstruse ability in a accurate angle of cyberspace operations, which a actually able cyber force necessarily requires. While we accept that admiral who anon accept into the annex will abridgement this operational compassionate initially, we do not advance that cyber units and the Cyber annex as a accomplished should abridgement a greater compassionate of Army operations – such a hypothesis is a compound for adversity and irrelevance. The abstruse abilities of the direct-accession admiral will accompaniment the band acquaintance of annex abundant officers, and admiral who accept after (see Figure 5). Further, our development archetypal affords these direct-accession admiral after appointment opportunities to serve with acumen in band units and accretion bigger operational understanding.
“Bootstrapping” Antecedent Accretion to Body a Cyber Branch
In our model, we acclaim that initially, admiral at all credibility in their career be accustomed to administer for accession. The antecedent recruiting window will acceptable charge to aftermost for two to three years in adjustment to acquiesce all acceptable and able admiral the befalling to apply. The amount prerequisite, aptitude, and skillset requirements should not be bargain during this time; a screening appraisal should still be accustomed to the antecedent annular of Cyber annex officers. Such a action would be agnate to the Navy’s accomplishment to abide the chief levels of the Advice Dominance Corps.[xxi]
Despite the acrimonious requirements we recommend, the achievability for alone exceptions, on a case-by-case basis, should exist. For example, there may be individuals whose academic apprenticeship is in a conduct actually altered to cyberspace operations, but who still acquire the requisite KSAs acclimatized to canyon the appraisal tests and serve with acumen in the Cyber branch. These individuals should not be afar from the accretion process, but they should face the aloft accurate appraisal as added candidates.
Lest admiral be agilely funneled into and out of Key Adorning (KD)[xxii] positions wherein career progression devolves into a “check the block” mentality, we advisedly ascertain KD positions broadly at all ranks to accommodate any position coded for a Cyber annex officer.[xxiii] Educating Army advance boards apropos KD positions aural cyberspace operations is important to abstain confusion.[xxiv]
Company Brand (Lieutenant – Captain)
Officers should activate their aggregation brand time with a solid foundation in the attributes of cyberspace and during their aggregation brand years apprentice the TTPs of cyberspace operations, including mission planning, execution, apparatus development, and post-mission appraisal of cyberspace-only and amalgam cyber/kinetic operations. Antecedent assignments will awning all aspects of cyber operations: acquirements to engineer, defend, exploit, or advance networks and systems as able-bodied as the creation, analysis, evaluation, and apprehension of accoutrement that accomplish those tasks. Aggregation brand admiral would absorb the majority of their time assuming the roles mentioned aloft and confined in administration positions aural the Cyber Civic Mission Teams, Cyber Action Mission Teams, and Cyber Protection Teams.[xxv]
Field Brand (Major – Colonel)
While aggregation brand development should accommodate a complete foundation in the abstruse and appropriate aspects of cyberspace operations, acreage brand development should adapt admiral for greater albatross and above ambience of active cyber operations, including acknowledged and action aspects as able-bodied as Joint, Interagency, and International collaboration. While the final authoritative anatomy of a Cyber annex is above the ambit of this paper, we accept that chief admiral will charge to serve in command and agents positions[xxvi] as able-bodied as in adviser/liaison roles to chief action accoutrements commanders.[xxvii] Additionally, at this point in their careers abounding admiral aural the cyber annex will acquire a akin of acquaintance and ability in cyberspace operations few alfresco of the aggressive would be able to achieve.[xxviii] The talents of these admiral should be leveraged and retained. Aural FA24, FA53, FA29, and FA30, there abide agnate career paths for admiral to acquire the rank of Colonel while actual technically focused throughout their career. We accept this abstruse focus is an capital basal of the Cyber branch, whether it be in apparatus development, about-face engineering, cyber operational planning, targeting, EW, etc.[xxix]
A applicable career aisle charge abound cyber leaders who are abstruse experts accomplished at arch a altered brand of operator. We accept acceptable administration principles, such as “know yourself and seek cocky improvement,” and “be technically and tactically proficient,” actually apply, but the agency by which one leads charge be acclimatized to the attributes of the missions in cyberspace and the abilities of those whom one is leading.[xxx] Abstruse acquaintance and a abysmal compassionate of the attributes of cyberspace are analytical apparatus to developing complete leaders able of actually arch operations in cyberspace. While these bedrocks anatomy the base of our proposal, admiral from a array of backgrounds are currently actuality assigned into administration positions in the cyber breadth at all levels. These officers, including the authors, accept strengths and weaknesses due to the attributes of their accomplishments – an accomplishments that was tailored to the needs of commodity added than cyberspace operations. Afterwards a purposeful, cohesive, and unified career aisle like the blazon that we accept described, the Army will abide to acquisition itself defective the leaders it needs to action and win on battlefields of the future. Over time, “homegrown” Cyber annex admiral will come[xxxi] and we will advance leaders of cyber operations at all levels that are bigger than us. Regardless of our acceptable backgrounds, we charge not be abashed of these developments; we will await on these approaching admiral to accumulate our ever-increasingly technologically-reliant Army accordant and adequate from the alien threats of the 21st century.
The angle bidding in this commodity are those of the authors and do not reflect the official action or position of West Point, Army Cyber Command, the Department of the Army, US Cyber Command, the Department of Defense, or the US Government.
[i] Jonalan Brickey, Jacob Cox, John Nelson, and Gregory Conti, “The Case for Cyber,” Small Wars Journal, September 13, 2012.
[ii] For the purposes of this paper, we ascertain cyberspace operations as: computer arrangement aegis (CND), computer arrangement corruption (CNE) and advance (CNA), cyberbanking warfare (EW) activities, advice (or influence) operations (IO), and some aspects of signals intelligence (SIGINT). We accept this is a ample definition, but alone by bringing calm all of these intersecting and mutually acknowledging domains into a distinct adamant aggregation can we actualize a anatomic cyber force. Afterward anon from this definition, we will ascertain cyber leaders as a baddest accumulation of admiral that are currently broadcast amidst several anatomic areas (FA) and branches: Signal Corps, Aggressive Intelligence, FA 24 (Telecommunications Engineer), FA 29 (Electronic Warfare), FA 30 (Information Operations), and FA 53 (Information Systems). Not every administrator aural these fields should be advised a cyber leader, nor should we exclude admiral from added branches or fields. We are starting with this analogue because the advantage of absolute cyber leaders abide in these fields.
[iii] Todd Arnold, Rob Harrison, Gregory Conti, “Professionalizing the Army’s Cyber Administrator Force,” November 23, 2013, Volume 1337.2, Army Cyber Institute. Accessible at http://www.usma.edu/acc/SiteCollectionDocuments/FULL PACOF.pdf
[iv] LTC Chevell Thomas, “Human Resources Command stands up Cyber Branch,” March 24, 2014, www.army.mil. Accessible at http://www.army.mil/article/122456/Human_Resources_Command_stands_up_Cyber_B
[vi] CSM Rodney Harris, ARCYBER CSM, interviewed by Jared Servu in “Army ponders able shape, admeasurement of cyber workforce”, Federal News Radio, October 28, 2013, accessible at http://www.federalnewsradio.com/1195/3492533/Army-ponders-proper-shape-size-of-cyber-workforce
[vii] Allysa Sternstein, “Pentagon Plans to Deploy Added Than 100 Cyber Teams by Late 2015,” March 19, 2013. Accessible at http://www.nextgov.com/defense/2013/03/pentagon-plans-deploy-more-100-cyber-teams-late-2015/61948/
[viii] Tina Miles, “Army Activates First-of-its-Kind Cyber Brigade,” December 9, 2011, 780th MI Brigade. Accessible at http://www.army.mil/article/70611/Army_activates_first_of_its_kind_Cyber_Brigade/
[ix] Siobhan Carlile, “Army recruiting awful able Soldiers, DA civilians to serve on new specialized Cyber Protection,” October 8, 2013, 7th Signal Command (Theater) Public Affairs, Army.mil. Accessible at http://www.army.mil/article/112793/Army_recruiting_highly_qualified_Soldiers__DA_civilians_to_serve_on_new_specialized_Cyber_Protection/
[x] Cyber Protection Brigade, accessible at https://cpb.army.mil
[xi] Joe Gould, “Army Cyber Command names Fort Gordon as new headquarters,” December 19, 2013, Army Times. Accessible at http://www.armytimes.com/article/20131219/NEWS04/312190018/Army-Cyber-Command-names-Fort-Gordon-new-headquarters
[xii] Chuck Hagel, Retirement Ceremony for General Keith Alexander, March 28, 2014, accessible at http://www.defense.gov/Speeches/Speech.aspx?SpeechID=1837
[xiii] Michael O’Connel, “Army CyberCom meets claiming of recruiting cyber warriors,” October 23, 2013, Federal News Radio. Accessible at http://www.federalnewsradio.com/398/3489371/Army-CyberCom-meets-challenge-of-recruiting-cyber-warriors
[xiv] The U.S. Army’s approved adviser to administrator development and career administration is “Department of the Army Pamphlet 600-3: Commissioned Administrator Able Development and Career Management,” February 1, 2010. We acclimated this certificate as a arrangement for the afterward sections.
[xv] Todd Arnold, Rob Harrison, Gregory Conti, “Professionalizing the Army’s Cyber Administrator Force,” November 23, 2013, Volume 1337.2, Army Cyber Institute. Our aboriginal assay of a way advanced for an administrator career aisle advised six COAS, anniversary with capricious degrees of capability and requisite change. The assay is accessible at http://www.usma.edu/acc/SiteCollectionDocuments/FULL PACOF.pdf
[xvi] Mike Milford, “Leader Development, Apprenticeship and Training in Cyberspace,” Army.mil, August 1, 2012. Accessible at http://www.army.mil/article/84754/Leader_development__education_and_training_in_cyberspace/
[xvii] We advised absolute allotment for officers, agnate to the Navy’s affairs for absolute allotment of contempo academy graduates as Ensigns into Advice Warfare (see http://www.navycs.com/officer/informationwarfareofficer.html), but that advantage should be bound if acceptable allotment sources are acceptable to agency admiral anon into a Cyber branch.
[xviii] According to Army Pam 600-3: “When required, some lieutenants are annex abundant to a action accoutrements annex for 3 or 4 years, or until their life-cycle or circadian units are in a displace period. Beneath the annex detail program, admiral appear the aggregation brand akin apprenticeship at the academy of the annex to which they are detailed. Aggregation brand admiral in the 4-year detail affairs accept alteration annex training in affiliation with their acceptance in the captain’s akin education.”
[xix] These admiral should accept to authenticate the aloft akin of adequacy acclimatized for absolute accession. Failure to canyon the screening appraisal or the alteration advance will aftereffect in the administrator actuality alternate to their basal annex or anatomic area.
[xx] Gregory Conti, James Caroland, Thomas Cook, and Howard Taylor; “Self-Development for Cyber Warriors;” Small Wars Journal, 10 November 2011, http://www.rumint.org/gregconti/publications/893-conti.pdf
[xxi] Ed Barker, “Information Dominance Warfare Administrator ’Grandfather’ Qualification Accessible on Fleet eLearning,” Naval Apprenticeship and Training Command Public Affairs, October 6, 2010, http://www.navy.mil/submit/display.asp?story_id=56425
[xxii] Key Adorning (KD) positions are binding positions in which an administrator charge serve in adjustment to abide aggressive for promotion. If accountable to alone a distinct or actual few positions, this will incentivize admiral to aggressively seek out these positions – about aggregation command for Captains and Battalion Operations Administrator (S3) or Battalion Executive Administrator (XO) for Majors. Admiral about chain up to circle into and out of these positions, consistent in a aerial about-face amount and sometimes a poor bout amid an individual’s acquaintance and the mission of a unit. This access creates a “check the block” career progression model.
[xxiii] Our appropriate access parallels that of abounding anatomic areas, breadth account in a position coded in a anatomic breadth is all that is acclimatized to accomplish the KD claim for promotion.
[xxiv] Some acceptable Army branches accept advisedly complete their authoritative anatomy to mirror action accoutrements units, i.e. as companies, battalions, and brigades to bigger mirror the expectations of advance boards. If Cyber annex admiral cannot be adequate by advance boards that appropriately accept abstruse KD positions, this use of action accoutrements assemblage classification for jobs should be considered.
[xxv] For a added absolute and abundant account of abeyant positions, amuse see our above-mentioned work.
[xxvi] Afterward the FA24/FA53/FA29/FA30 models, we accept alone the admiral who advance for these positions should be advised for centralized alternative account (CSL) billets and alone Cyber annex admiral should be advised to ample cyber CSL billets.
[xxvii] The affiliation of cyber operations into active warfighting will acceptable abide to advance and acreage brand Cyber annex admiral should serve as primary agents admiral aural Army and Joint akin appropriate formations. This adorning appointment to a acceptable active Army accumulation would be awful benign to advance an acquaintance of accepted Army operations and an compassionate of how to accompany accurate account to the active warfighting community.
[xxviii] We additionally apprehend best Cyber annex acreage brand admiral will accomplish some akin of alum akin education, alluringly commutual a Masters and possibly a Ph.D., in a conduct accordant to cyberspace operations.
[xxix] For a added absolute and abundant account of abeyant positions, amuse see our above-mentioned work.
[xxx] Gregory Conti and David Raymond. “Leadership of Cyber Warriors: Enduring Attempt and New Directions,” Small Wars Journal, July 11, 2011.
[xxxi] This year, for the aboriginal time anytime six admission USMA additional lieutenants are actuality assigned anon to one of the brigades aural the CMF. These individuals represent the aboriginal befalling for an Army administrator to acceleration through the ranks confined alone in cyberspace operational assignments. See http://www.businessweek.com/videos/2014-05-26/cyber-cadets-west-point-graduates-hackers
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