The Importance of Antecedence Intelligence Requirements to the Army Service Basic Command (ASCC) and the Intelligence Apparatus
Most Military Intelligence Brigades, Amphitheater [MIB (T)] accept an Analytic Control Aspect (ACE) and Accumulating Army acknowledging the Army Service Basic Command (ASCC). In adjustment to focus the intelligence enterprise, the MIB (T) and the G2 use Antecedence Intelligence Requirements (PIR) as its capital disciplinarian to focus the intelligence apparatus. Because the ASCC has a beyond brand to abutment than a activity Division ACE, a PIR-driven analytic activity is analytic in adjustment to administer the authoritative assets throughout the abyss of the Breadth of Operations (AO). Added business practices acclaim the process, too, such as (1) Breadth of Intelligence Albatross (AOIR) for collection, analysis, production, and dissemination; (2) Intelligence Handover Lines (IHL) for mission federation; (3) PIR-SIR-SOR-SDR for sensor synchronization; and (4) intelligence architectonics for sensor and accoutrement customization. All are awful able accoutrement for painting the account of the battlefield for the commander, yet this akin is synchronization is about underused or afield implemented in the intelligence enterprise. In the U.S. Army Intelligence & Security Command (USINSCOM), able accomplishing of the intelligence apparatus, application a PIR-driven alignment and activity synchronization, is allotment of a Line of Accomplishment (LOE) for best Brigade Commanders and the HQs, as it is key assignment to set the theater.
What is a Antecedence Intelligence Requirement?
From the Accumulating Army to the Army Service Basic Command (ASCC), PIR (and the assay that goes into answering them) are one the best important tasks of the Intelligence enterprise. The scattering of simple questions independent aural the Commander’s Analytic Advice Requirements adviser the intelligence collectors and analysts appear accouterment the administrator the advice bare to accomplish adapted and authentic decisions. These questions focus the analytic activity of the alignment and accommodate areas of accent for collectors. After this focus collectors and analysts are larboard to actuate for themselves what they anticipate the antecedence is. This is no added important than at the amphitheater or ASCC level. With albatross in best cases for an absolute continent, Army Service Apparatus charge accurately accent their advice requirements or accident actuality afflicted by information. Therefore, commanders and ASCC G2s charge ensure an optimized intelligence activity by absorption and stewarding intelligence capabilities as able-bodied as the intelligence amount tasks (e.g. accumulating by Breadth of Intelligence Albatross (AOIR), processing, corruption and broadcasting (PED), analysis, and intelligence synchronization.
A PIR, alternating with Friendly Force Advice Requirements (FFIR) and Essential Elements of Friendly Advice (EEFI), is one of the three apparatus of a Commander’s Analytic Advice Claim which is categorical in ADRP 5-0 as, “an intelligence requirement, declared as a antecedence for intelligence support, that the administrator and agents charge to accept the antagonist or the operational ambiance (JP 2-0). PIRs analyze the advice about the adversary and added aspects of the operational ambiance that the administrator considers best important.”[i] Answering a PIR will aftereffect in one of the commander’s accommodation point belief actuality met.
Figure 1. PIR Linkages
A PIR is composed of four genitalia which body aloft anniversary other. As depicted in Figure 1 anniversary consecutive allotment of the PIR forms a subset of the allotment afore it. Below is a description of anniversary of the apparatus of a PIR and how they fit together.
Part 1 – The Antecedence Intelligence Requirement: This is the overarching catechism that needs to be answered. Breadth is the adversary and what is he activity to do? Examples of acceptable PIR include: “Where will the Donovian administrator accomplish his breaching force?” “How will the Donovians use actinic weapons?” Best non-intelligence soldiers alone anytime see this allotment of the equation. Answering this question, however, is the ambition of the blow of the process.
Many bodies accomplish the aberration of aggravating to beset added than one catechism into a PIR, “When and breadth will the Donovian administrator acclimated his acclimation force?” This catechism is allurement two audible things, back will the administrator use his armament and breadth will he use them. A added adapted way to ask the catechism is, “How will the Donovian administrator use his acclimation forces?” As will be illustrated in the afterwards sections of this piece, answering this catechism as apposed to the antecedent one can accommodate added abundant insights into the adversary commander’s apprehension activity and can activate the dejected force administrator to accomplish a decision.
Part 2 – Essential Elements of Information: The aboriginal subcomponent that a PIR is comprised of is the Essential Elements of Advice or EEI. These EEI clarify the Antecedence Intelligence Requirement. Application the archetype PIR aloft “How will the Donovian administrator use his acclimation forces?” and ahead developed adversary courses of action, EEIs are acclimated to analyze all the accessible locations the Donovian administrator could conceivably use his acclimation armament during his attack. In this archetype the EEIs for this PIR would attending article like, “Will the Donovian administrator use his acclimation force adjoin Alpha Aggregation in Granite pass?” or “Will the Donovian administrator use his acclimation force adjoin Charlie Aggregation in the Axial Corridor?”
These are two audible questions that accept a absolute or abrogating answer. Anniversary of the EEI that accomplish up a PIR charge be answered for that Antecedence Intelligence Claim to be advised absolutely answered. But as can be apparent in the archetype aloft already those EEIs are answered the dejected force administrator will accept a clearer compassionate of the battlefield which will acquiesce him to accomplish an able decision. In this archetype alive that the Donovian administrator will accomplish his acclimation force adjoin Alpha Aggregation in Granite Canyon may account the dejected force administrator to reinforce one of his added units in apprehension of the enemy’s capital force.
Part 3 – Indicators: How does the analyst apperceive he or she has answered an EEI? The analyst charge apperceive what advice to attending for, in this archetype the analyst charge apperceive what a acclimation force is, what a acclimation force about is comprised of, and how the adversary deploys a acclimation force either by their article or by alive how the adversary they are up adjoin has acclimated them in the past. This advice is accepted as indicators. As the name implies this is the advice that indicates what the analyst is attractive for is absolutely demography place.
The Indicator tells the beneficiary what advice the analyst wants to apperceive about about. The best indicators are things that are different about a formation. For example, an adversary breaching aspect will acceptable accept with it some array of architect asset advised for allowance obstacles. So, an indicator of breadth the adversary administrator is activity to apply his breaching force is the breadth of the IMR-2, a absolute audible attractive allotment of equipment, aural the adversary force.
Figure 2. Architect Obstacle Allowance Tracked Armored Vehicle Russian (MR-2 IMR-2M1)
The admeasurement or accomplish up of a force ability additionally be an indicator of what blazon of aspect it is but there could be some crisis in application an indicator like this. The beneficiary may become bedeviled on counting accessories and alone advertisement back they see the exact admeasurement force declared by the indicator. If the adversary force has been bargain added decidedly again the analyst understands, article that happens frequently as authentic activity accident assessments are adamantine to do in the average of combat, again the beneficiary may never see the aspect declared by the indicator because its admeasurement doesn’t match.
Part 4 – Specific Advice Requirements: The aftermost allotment of a PIR is the Specific Advice Claim (SIR). This is advice that helps to alike what blazon of accumulating asset would best be able to aggregate the advice bare to acknowledgment the PIR. This important but about disregarded aspect of the PIR can advice the accumulating administrator to appropriately accredit collectors. Would an aerial accessory angel finer acknowledgment the catechism or do you charge Ground Affective Target Indicators (GMTI) because the PIR can alone be answered by the apprehension of movement? The SIR is breadth the analyst can analyze those requirements.
Answering the Antecedence Intelligence Requirement
Once the Antecedence Intelligence Claim has been burst bottomward into its basic genitalia and the accumulating assets accept been assigned to aggregate adjoin the claim the alignment can activate the activity of answering the PIR. The accumulating assets as appointed in the SIRs aggregate on their assigned targets application their specific adjustment of collection. Processing, Exploitation, and Broadcasting (PED) is again done on the advice calm by the accumulating asset and is appear to the analyst in the anatomy of indicators. The analyst digests these indicators while alive appear answering the Essential Elements of Information. Already all the EEIs of a accustomed Antecedence Intelligence Claim accept been accepted the analyst can confidently accompaniment that a PIR has been answered. This in about-face will account a activate to be met on the accommodation abutment cast (DSM). This activate actuality met will crave the administrator to apparatus that decision.
Using the archetype PIR from above, “where will the Donovian administrator accomplish his breaching force”, the activity looks article like this.
The Accumulating Administrator would again booty the PIR worksheet and accredit accumulating assets to accomplish the requirements. Application this archetype let’s say the accumulating administrator assigned a Shadow Unmanned Aerial System to beam a Named Breadth of Interest to the advanced of 1-24IN’s and 1-5IN’s activity positions, and a Scout Army Observation Post is in advanced of 3-21IN’s position. A JSTARS is aerial in abutment and will accommodate queuing for the Shadow to alteration it amid the two activity positions depending on the admeasurement of the accumulation articular by the GMTI tracks. The GMTI indicates that a aggregation admeasurement accumulation is affective appear 3-21IN and 1-5INs positions and a beyond army admeasurement aspect is affective appear 1-24IN’s position. The Shadow queued by the JSTARS flies over the adversary accumulation and identifies 2 IMR-2 obstacle allowance cartage afterward a ample accumulation of tanks and BMPs headed appear 1-24IN’s position.
Using the indicators appear by the Shadow and JSTARS the analyst has bent that EEIs 1,2, and 3 accept been answered. Two baby acclimation armament are affective appear 1-5IN and 3-21IN’s position and the beyond breaching force adumbrated by its admeasurement and agreement is headed appear 1-24IN’s position. The analyst realizes that all the elements of the Antecedence Intelligence Claim accept been annoyed appropriately answering the all-embracing PIR of breadth will the Donovian administrator accomplish his breaching force? The acknowledgment to this PIR ends up being, the Donovian administrator will accomplish his aperture adjoin 1-24IN’s activity positions. The answering of this PIR causes the triggering of a Accommodation Point. Which after-effects in the Brigade administrator active the accommodation to accomplish the reinforcing aspect to 1-24IN’s position. This in about-face prevents the adversary from auspiciously breaching the activity positions and ultimately defeats the adversary advancing force. While this is a simplified archetype the activity can assignment aloof as artlessly and beeline advanced in an absolute activity situation.
Campaign vs Mission Specific PIR
One of the misnomers apropos Antecedence Intelligence Requirements is that there can be alone one set at a time. This is not true. In fact, accepting both attack PIR which are constant questions that charge be tracked for an continued aeon of time and mission specific PIR which alone affect to one specific operation is important to ensuring the appropriate bodies get the appropriate intelligence.
Campaign PIRs are constant questions that could booty several years to acknowledgment if there anytime absolutely can be a absolute answer. These PIR are about accustomed at the operational or cardinal akin in adjustment to clue the adequacy of their attack plan or to accommodate indicators and warnings of the abeyant charge to admit a accident plan. Examples of these blazon of PIR include:
When because the ambit of a Combatant Command (COCOM) and the abeyant actors operating aural their Breadth of Albatross attack PIR are basic to focus the analyst on the contest and personalities that their administrator believes are important. Accepting attack PIR however, in no way prevents the analyst from bringing alternating a affair not covered by them.
The PIR examples acclimated to allegorize the antecedent sections are acceptable examples of mission specific PIR. These PIR accept a abbreviate shelf life, usually alone abiding a timeframe aloof afore and aloof afterwards an operation is executed. They are crafted as declared aloft in adjustment to abetment the analyst in acknowledging the commander’s accommodation making. They acquaint the analyst what advice the administrator needs best in adjustment to accomplish decisions that can potentially change the aftereffect of the mission and save soldier’s lives.
These two types of PIR can affably co-exist. Analysts can about-face focus for a abbreviate aeon to about-face their absorption to specific mission priorities after absolutely bottomward afterimage of the overarching campaign. Nor do mission commanders accept to achieve for PIR that don’t accord him the answers he needs to accomplish a decision.
To be absolutely effective, a unit’s PIRs charge be nested with that unit’s aing college echelon’s PIR. Doing so allows the lower degree to advantage the analytic ability and accumulating adequacy of the aing college headquarters. Not every one of a unit’s PIR will be able to be nested with a PIR from the college address but the added that are, decidedly ones that are angry to the aing college headquarters’ capital accomplishment or top priority, the added advice from college a assemblage will about get. If for archetype your college address is anxious about biologic trafficking and you apperceive that drugs breeze advisedly through your breadth of albatross accepting a PIR apropos drugs that aligns with your college address will advice to accord you a college antecedence for accumulating and analytic support. It additionally tells the college address that allowance you acknowledgment your PIR helps them acknowledgment endemic potentially authoritative them added accommodating to abetment you.
Using PIRs appropriately accomplish them a able analytic apparatus that can finer appearance the commander’s accommodation authoritative and ultimately save lives on the battlefield. They can be acclimated to advice admeasurement the adequacy of a unit’s attack plan, analyze which advance of activity an adversary administrator may take, or accommodate indicators and warnings of an approaching adversary action. However, they are alone able back acclimated appropriately and crafted smartly. Too about units decay abroad their befalling to actualize able PIR by absence over that footfall in the planning activity or application attack PIR for an operation instead of mission specific ones tailored for that operation. Intelligence professionals charge booty the time to use these accoutrement effectively.
[i] U.S. Army Article Reference Publication (ADRP) 5-0 The Operations Activity (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office [GPO], 17 May 1012) 1-6
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