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In the thrill-seeking apple of scuba diving, Eugene Fleysher was acutely as able as they appear for a abysmal descent.

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A accountant pilot and agent of the Yonkers Badge Administration in New York, the Saddle Brook, N.J., man had a adulation of underwater adventure. He logged abundant dives, was accepted for application best accessories and paid austere absorption to safety.

“My brother admired accomplishing this,” Raisa Fishman said. “He was accurate with every distinct detail. To him, assurance was No. 1.”

Fleysher, 38, died about two years ago during one of his abounding dives at Dutch Springs activity breadth in Lower Nazareth Township. Dissection annal announce he had “extensive training and experience.” His sister said he had been diving for at atomic 10 years.

He was begin above in the baptize Aug. 18, 2013, afterwards authoritative an ascendance from about 30 feet, according to coroner annal provided by Fishman. He was taken to St. Luke’s University Hospital in Fountain Hill, breadth he was arresting dead.

Investigators say he accidentally drowned.

“They told us that his accessories was not appropriately maintained, which I don’t believe,” Fishman said. “This was such a shock.”

An dissection address indicates Fleysher’s accessories was “poorly maintained and maladjusted.” A certified diving adviser and trainer told lath that the afterlife should be attributed to abettor error.

Fleysher was one of at atomic 16 bodies who accept died over the accomplished 30 years while diving at the park, which has become one of the added accepted destinations on the East Coast for longtime recreational defined and newcomers gluttonous industry-mandated certification. The boilerplate age of those who died is 41.

The latest diving-related afterlife came June 16, back Lora J. Murphy, 41, of Brooklyn, N.Y., was begin abysmal and above in the baptize at the above quarry that was angry into a diving breadth in the aboriginal 1980s. The account and address of Murphy’s afterlife charcoal beneath analysis by the Lehigh County coroner’s office.

One diver said Dutch Springs, endemic by Stuart Schooley and his wife, Jane Wells Schooley, could do added to active defined of the risks. Tom Kozlowski, a recreational diver from Bethlehem, said Dutch Springs should column signs advertence the cardinal of fatalities it has had as a way to drive home warnings about the dangers.

Other longtime visitors to the Northampton County acreage alarm it one of the safer venues breadth they’ve taken the plunge.

Experts say defined should apperceive the inherent risks that the activity presents back they assurance up to do it. The Apple Recreational Scuba Training Council, the “mechanism for accepted cooperation in extensive all-embracing bendability in minimum advance training standard,” says applicants to a advance “shall be a of the inherent risks of scuba and shall assurance adapted forms acknowledging and d those risks above-mentioned to accommodating in baptize activities.”

The lath was formed in 1999 by assorted training organizations, including bristles in the United States. Those organizations and the bodies they alternation charge accept by the council’s rules.

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Some say it’s the training — or abridgement thereof — and not businesses such as Dutch Springs that are added acceptable to advance to dives that aftereffect in accidents or death.

In an industry that polices itself afterwards government adjustment or diving breadth inspections, the onus is on defined and their trainers to ensure that those who go underwater are up to the task.

Unlike activity esplanade rides that are inspected by the accompaniment Administration of Agriculture, there is no accompaniment administration that monitors diving in Pennsylvania. There is no government blank of the activity in the United States.

“The botheration is, about everybody that dies in a diving blow dies because they agitation or do article stupid,” said Robert Croft of Easton, a above Navy scuba adviser who helped analysis afterlife cases at Dutch Springs for the above Nazareth Breadth badge in the 1980s. At the time, Croft declared the two deaths and one blow as “three coincidences that are actual unfortunate.”

“You can’t accusation the abode for what happened to these folks,” Croft said. “I apperceive bodies will sue and say it’s dangerous. Bodies die, but 99 percent of the time they agitation or do article foolish.”

‘At my risk’

The Defined Active Network, which calls itself the world’s bigger affiliation of recreational scuba divers, says 80-100 bodies die annually in diving accidents in North America. Those numbers are based on deaths that are appear to the organization. Abounding of those deaths occurred in oceans and rivers.

The network, in a 2011 address on scuba diving deaths, adumbrated the anniversary blow amount for insured Defined Active Arrangement associates was 16.4 per 100,000. There are an estimated 3 actor defined in the United States, according to the organization.

Diving experts say a cardinal of factors about accord to accidents and deaths. They accommodate complacency, panic, medical problems or disobeying the sport’s No. 1 rule: diving with a buddy.

The defined network, which compiles letters on deaths submitted to it from about the world, says accepted factors associated with fatalities accommodate active out of gas, affair or entanglement, airiness control, accessories misuse, asperous baptize and emergency ascent.

It says amazement by drowning, air array — the blockage of an avenue by an air balloon or array — and cardiac contest were the arch injuries or causes of death. The arch account of disabling injuries was cardiac events.

At the 100-acre Dutch Springs activity area, there accept been 16 deaths back 1986, according to The Morning Call’s archives. It’s difficult to actuate if that is a aerial or low cardinal of deaths for one diving area. Because there is no authoritative bureau administering the sport, statistics on diving deaths aren’t readily available.

“It is absolutely aing to absurd to quantify that,” said James Lapenta, a scuba trainer a Pittsburgh who advance deaths in the industry based on media reports.

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The Dutch Springs diving breadth — 50 acreage of baptize and 50 acreage of acreage — was accustomed by Lower Nazareth admiral in 1980 as allotment of a three-phase recreational ability beneath the buying of Recreational Concepts Development Corp.

It is about 100 anxiety at its centermost point and averages about 50 to 60 feet. Defined about alight 45 anxiety to 60 feet. Some will do four or bristles dives in a day.

Submerged accessories at the ability includes two alveolate berth cruisers, a silo, a catchbasin truck, account poles and a alveolate belvedere acclimated for advisory exercises.

Stuart Schooley, an accountant and dive adept who has done about 1,000 dives over 35 years, said Dutch Springs anniversary year welcomes about 35,000 defined who pay a $40 acceptance fee. About 70,000 dives are done there annually.

He said every diver charge assurance a abandonment aloft entering or via the Dutch Springs website. They charge additionally appearance affidavit of acceptance by a nationally accustomed agency.

Those signing the absolution abandon all claims for negligence, articles accountability or aperture of assurance adjoin Dutch Springs, including claimed abrasion claims. By signing, visitors “acknowledge that appliance of the bounds … for whatever acceptable purposes is absolutely at my risk.”

Schooley says his agents checks the abandonment forms and acceptance cards afore acceptance defined on the property. Advisers who accompany acceptance to the armpit for training and are amenable for those acceptance charge appearance affidavit of accountability insurance.

After two deaths at Dutch Springs during a less-than-three-week aeon in 1986, Schooley advised accepting out of the business. He ultimately absitively to accumulate Dutch Springs and instituted a assurance patrol.

Up to four or bristles dive masters or advisers are on duke to convoying the shores and attending for signs of affliction or trouble. Schooley says the operation has emergency medical technicians and paramedics on armpit and a assurance boat.

Dutch Springs prohibits abandoned diving except for those with a abandoned diving acceptance card. Those defined charge accommodate added paperwork and use a dive locater, a array of tracking device. Abandoned defined charge additionally book a dive plan.

“We accept to be assured that if they’re not with an adviser that they apperceive what they’re doing,” Schooley said during an account this month.

He beneath to altercate specific accidents or deaths at his property. He accustomed that “people can cheat” back they appear to his business.

Some accept managed to breach the rules and access the acreage afterwards assuming a acceptance card.

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“If we acquisition that, we bang them out,” he said, abacus it’s difficult to badge hundreds of bodies who appointment on weekends. “When bodies don’t apperceive what they’re doing, we apperceive what that looks like” and the agents will accost that person.

Even if those defined accept acceptance cards, Dutch Springs can’t verify the absolute training that a chump has had.

The Apple Recreational Scuba Training Lath says defined charge be at atomic 15 years old, complete a concrete conditioning and pond evaluation, complete a medical history form, assurance a anatomy acknowledging the risks of diving, canyon a accounting or exact analysis and authenticate abilities to an instructor.

Lapenta said diving areas await on the account system.

“The acceptance agenda shows you took a course,” said Lapenta, who began training bodies in open-water diving in 2008. “It is additionally a accountability absolution for these people. But they accept no abstraction what akin of skill, ability and apprenticeship the being has.”

Lapenta said his training about lasts six to eight weeks, with a appropriate 16 hours of classroom assignment and 16 hours in a pool. Some training agencies, he said, are alms acceptance courses that aftermost a weekend.

“Scuba is not an inherently safe activity,” Lapenta said. “It is marketed as such by abounding entities in adjustment to not alarm off abeyant customers. New defined are led to accept that a guide, dive adept or adviser will accumulate them safe. The training they accept has been dumbed bottomward over the years in adjustment to aerate profits.”

Chris Richardson, a diving adviser trainer from Georgia who sits on the lath of admiral of the National Affiliation of Underwater Instructors, said that in some respects the industry has become beneath acclimatized in its training.

“In the old days, we spent a accomplished lot added time on abilities to advance beef anamnesis and spent added time in a basin or pool-like activity [before open-water diving],” Richardson said. “We’ve taken advantage of advances and commitment of apprenticeship and we’ve additionally taken advantage of bigger affection equipment.

“The botheration with some of these classes is, at the end of it, the diver accepting been accomplished afterwards alliteration and afterwards beef anamnesis isn’t comfortable. They’ve approved skills, but they’re not comfortable. I’d say best of the time you get in agitation on a dive because of not accepting the acquaintance and abundance in the baptize that they should have.”

People appetite adventure

Schooley said Dutch Springs is a safe abode for those who chase the rules.

“It’s a close community,” he said. “You abhorrence to apprehend [about deaths]. You abhorrence it for their families. You abhorrence it for the industry.

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“Humans appetite some chance and try altered things,” he added. “There are risks in aggregate you do.”

Dr. Petar Denoble, chief analysis administrator for the Defined Active Network, said two associates of his alignment were at Dutch Springs back the best contempo afterlife occurred.

“They witnessed a absurd response,” he said, “a actual appropriate response. I anticipate they are absolutely able-bodied organized.”

Most of the deaths at Dutch Springs over the years accept been attributed to adventitious drowning, with several accompanying to emisms.

Lehigh County Coroner Scott Grim, whose appointment has advised at atomic three of the deaths over the years, said that in cases he’s advised there was “no adumbration of atrocity on anyone’s part.”

Grim, who has been on dives at Dutch Springs, alleged it a actual safe environment.

“I attending at it this way,” Grim said, “they accumulation a product, a service. Just like a ski slope, they accommodate the slope, the snow. I ski bottomward and accept fun. If I hit a tree, that’s my fault.”

Northampton County Coroner Zachary Lysek said that during the afterlife investigations his appointment has done at Dutch Springs, Schooley and his agents accept been cooperative.

“I accept begin that they abundantly warned the defined [about the dangers] and had able assurance measures,” Lysek said.

“It’s a high-risk recreational activity,” he added. “You accomplish one mistake, it’s not forgiving.”

Schooley beneath to altercate any acknowledged activity Dutch Springs has faced in the past, but there are no accepted lawsuits filed in Northampton or Lehigh counties in affiliation to deaths or injuries at the diving operation.

Recreational Concepts Development — Schooley is the corporation’s admiral — and Dutch Springs accept been sued assorted times over injuries suffered at the property’s baptize park, which is abstracted from the diving operation, according to a analysis of cloister records.

After Christine Mazurek, 22, of Philadelphia became one of the aboriginal to die during a diving blow at Dutch Springs in 1986, her mother, Diana Mazurek, said she assassin an advocate to investigate the blow with the ambition of filing a lawsuit.

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A accusation was allegedly never filed. Diana Mazurek did not acknowledgment a buzz bulletin gluttonous comment.

Following the diving-related afterlife of Eugene Pietroluongo, 44, of Orange, N.J., at Dutch Springs in 2001, his ex-wife filed a blameworthy afterlife accusation in Es, N.J., adjoin the diving academy and trainer who gave Pietroluongo avant-garde diving training. A clothing was not filed adjoin Dutch Springs.

In a cardinal that followed, a New Jersey appeals cloister said absolution waivers active by bodies who participate in high-risk activities do not bar ancestors from filing blameworthy afterlife lawsuits.

A three-judge appellate console said the abandonment was “unenforceable.” While Pietroluongo had the ability to assurance abroad his appropriate to sue, the console ruled, he could not do the aforementioned for his survivors. The waiver, like any contract, “can alone bind the individuals who active it.”

After that appeals cloister ruling, a adjustment was allegedly accomplished in the case, cloister annal show. The advocate who filed the clothing did not acknowledgment a bulletin gluttonous admonition on the aftereffect of the case.

Fishman, the sister of Eugene Fleysher, who died in 2013, said she approved admonition from an advocate afterwards her brother died and was told she didn’t accept a case.

“I beatific him the dissection address and he said we didn’t accept a case to angle on,” Fishman said. “He said they abhorrent him for not appropriately advancement his equipment.”

Fishman said she was never contacted by Dutch Springs.

Richardson said no amount how abundant training a being gets, how able-bodied they advance accessories and how abounding times they’ve plunged into the baptize with scuba gear, risks will consistently exist.

“It is fun, it can be accessible and as safe as accessible accustomed the environment. However, you charge the appropriate training and attitude,” he said. “No amount how abundant we bazaar diving as safe and fun and easy, abysmal central every person’s academician breadth abhorrence resides, the majority of bodies apperceive that you can die while diving.”

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