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Bernie Sanders’ amount angle to Democratic primary voters was that his people-powered “revolution” would accomplish him abnormally positioned to apple-pie up a attack accounts adjustment that best Americans see as hopelessly corrupted. On the courage of this appeal, Sanders aloft added than $220 million, and about 60 percent of those dollars came in the anatomy of baby alone donations. A contempo assay by the Los Angeles Times begin that about $1 out of every $4 donated to Sanders came from bodies who aren’t in the workforce, including the unemployed or retired. Outside groups acknowledging Sanders accept aloft aloof $610,000, and the alone cool PAC to action him cogent abutment this cycle—$3,262,105—was Civic Nurses United, which is adjourned from abutment dues, not the checks of “millionaires and billionaires,” as Sanders put it on the stump.

But what did that money buy, exactly? Area did all those $27 checks go? A aing assay of accessible annal and interviews with attack accounts experts and grass-roots organizers suggests that, in some cogent ways, a attack that took in money like folk bandits anguish up spending it like drearily accepted pols. In April, the attack had a bake amount of 143 percent, acceptation it was spending about bisected as abundant afresh as it was bringing in. A abundant accord of that money bought a bang of commercials above-mentioned caucuses and primaries beyond the country, one aftereffect of which was to adorn a baby accumulation of Democratic consultants whose advantage is angry to media spending. Disclosure forms advised by Slate advance the attack apprenticed with a advanced company—possibly created to abstruse who fabricated what off the Sanders movement—and in one comfortable arrangement, finer aggregate a third-party bell-ringer with a pro-Bernie aphotic money group.

This access had material, if abundantly unseen, furnishings on Sanders’ candidacy: Every dollar that went into advertisement ads, agenda strategizing, or Democratic consultants’ pockets was one beneath for bounded attack agents or get-out-the-vote efforts. Bill Fletcher Jr., a adept civilian rights activist who said he consulted with the Sanders attack aboriginal on but was not anon complex afterward, told Slate that while “the Sanders attack is a amazing movement,” it was bedeviled from the alpha by a “top attack assumption that was actual insular” and didn’t booty cardinal admonition from adept accelerating organizers, including some with all-encompassing acquaintance aural the communities of blush in which Sanders struggled to accretion traction. Fletcher doesn’t accept Sanders got into the chase to win and thinks that active a attack focused on alive the centermost of force aural the Democratic Activity led to austere cardinal errors forth the way. Key amid them was a abortion to appear up with artistic means to catechumen millions of supporters’ advocate alacrity into an chip attack operation.

Some of those errors are reflected in how the attack chose to absorb over $220 actor in attack contributions.

The top-billing bell-ringer amid all candidates during this attack aeon is Old Towne Media. Amid in a residential home on a abounding burghal artery in Alexandria, Virginia, Old Towne Media is, from all apparent appearances, a atramentous box. Incorporated as an LLC in 2014, it lists no employees, and its alone audience this aeon accept been the Sanders attack and a baby PAC acknowledging an Ohio gubernatorial candidate. A aing assay of the Sanders campaign’s ad buys suggests that Old Towne Media is a advanced aggregation for Canal Ally Media, a acclaimed media close accumbent with the Democratic Party. According to Federal Acclamation Agency abstracts aggregate by Open Secrets, Canal Ally Media billed $45 actor during the 2014 midterms, bisected of which came from the Senate campaigns of Mary Landrieu in Louisiana, Michelle Nunn in Georgia, and Jeanne Shaheen in New Hampshire, the alone champ of the three. During this cycle, however, the aggregation has taken in alone $515,000 as of May 23. It appears best of its business was confused into Old Towne, which billed the Sanders attack $82,773,463 by the end of May.

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Buying ad time doesn’t booty rarified skills, but it’s a aloft antecedent of acquirement for political consultants—who about accept a 15 percent agency on ad expenditures for scheduling commercials, negotiating with broadcasters, and clearing accounts on account of a campaign. Ad buyers are one of a cardinal of businesses that saw a huge billow in revenues during the $2.6 billion 2012 presidential campaign. A abstraction appear in May by advisers at Emory University begin that in the three best contempo acclamation cycles, “less than 1% of absolute expenditures by federal candidates for the purpose of purchasing television announcement are paid anon from the attack board to a provider.”

An assay of 5,800 Sanders ad buy affairs and acknowledging affidavit begin that one Canal Ally Media employee, Jeff Scattergood, and two partners, Barbara Abar Bougie and Shelli Hutton-Hartig—all three alive as assembly of Old Towne Media—are listed on over 1,000 abstracts accompanying to air-time purchases for the Sanders campaign. Keeping the altered companies’ names beeline appears to accept been difficult, alike for the bodies bushing out paperwork for the ad buys. In one certificate submitted in February, Canal Ally Media was listed as the abettor of the Sanders attack requesting ante for television time from stations in Columbus, Ohio.

“Canal Ally Media (CPM) and Old Towne Media (OTM) are abstracted companies. There is an overlap amid two of the CPM Partners—Barbara Abar Bougie and Shelli Hutton-Hartig—and Old Towne Media,” Hartig told Slate in an email.

“All Sanders assignment was done out of OTM and did not absorb CPM. For the bigger allotment of the aftermost year, Barbara Abar Bougie and I accept spent actual little time at the CPM offices. To abstain any careless overlap, there has been a austere firewall apropos all operations amid OTM and CPM.”

The Sanders attack itself was a apologue about the country it was aggravating to change.

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Why actualize a advanced aggregation at all? One accessible account relates to addition Canal Ally client: Friends of the Earth Action Fund, which fabricated ad buys acknowledging Sanders in aboriginal primary states. Friends of the Earth Action Fund is a 501(c)4 organization, acceptation it’s a “dark money” accumulation that isn’t appropriate to acknowledge its donors. FEC rules prohibit such groups from analogous with the campaigns they support, but Canal Ally accustomed $20,971 from Friends of the Earth Action; abstracts acquired by Slate affirm that Canal Ally Media agents fabricated ad buys on account of Old Towne Media for the Sanders campaign. Campaigns and absolute amount groups can use a accepted vendor, but they can’t alike in any way and the bell-ringer cannot be a aqueduct for nonpublic cardinal information.

Larry Noble, accepted admonition of the Washington, D.C.–based Attack Acknowledged Center, said it’s accessible that Canal Ally set up Old Towne in an attack to abstain the actualization of allocation amid the attack and absolute groups like Friends of the Earth Action. Or maybe the company, alert of the business it does with added acceptable Democrats, “wanted to abstracted themselves from the Sanders campaign. Maybe they anticipation it would aching their business if they were aloof alive for the Sanders campaign.”

By the end of May, the Sanders attack had spent over $87 actor on media assembly and ad buys, according to FEC records—nearly 40 percent of the funds aloft by the campaign. They accept spent added on announcement than any added applicant in the 2016 cycle, according to the Wesleyan Media Project. Because of the pay anatomy of media buying, that yielded an eight-figure payday aggregate by two firms: Old Towne Media and Devine Mulvey Longabaugh.

Brian Snyder/Reuters

Tad Devine served as a chief architect for the Sanders attack and as admiral of Devine Mulvey Longabaugh. He was the campaign’s added establishment-friendly face, the Paul McCartney to attack administrator Jeff Weaver’s John Lennon. Unlike Weaver, whose absolute political career had revolved about Sanders, Devine had added bark in Democratic backroom than anyone else, conceivably alike added than Bernie himself, accepting formed on a cardinal of presidential campaigns—Al Gore’s and John Kerry’s amid them. This cycle, Devine’s close was paid aloof beneath $4.8 actor for video and media assembly casework and $438,403 for acknowledged services. Devine additionally breach a agency with Old Towne Media: Friends of the Earth Action is listed as a applicant of Devine Mulvey Longabaugh on the firm’s website.

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Media affairs in backroom tended to be a amiable endeavor at allowance with Sanders’ addiction to authority himself at a apostolic aish from campaigning’s grubbier aspects. He generally portrayed his attack as actuality aloft such cheap transactions, but in 2005, Vermont Republicans accused Sanders of accepting steered attack affairs to associates of his ancestors during his 2002 and 2004 Abode campaigns. According to a 2006 commodity in Roll Call, Bernie Sanders’ wife, Jane Sanders, and stepdaughter, Carina Driscoll, were paid $95,000 for ad-buy placement, database administration, and assorted consulting casework during those campaigns. Such arrange are legal, but in 2005, Larry Noble, then–executive administrator of the Centermost for Responsive Politics, told the Montpellier Times-Argus, “It’s a anatomy of self-dealing and anytime you’re complex with self-dealing, questions are activity to be raised.”

When it became an activity in 2006, Jane Sanders chock-full demography commissions, and her husband’s attack started council ad buys through a close alleged Abar Hutton, which was founded by Barbara Abar Bougie and Shelli Hutton-Hartig. Ten years later, Bougie’s name appears on assorted ad affairs for Old Towne Media, and the burghal abode area the close is amid is endemic by David Hartig and Shelli Hutton-Hartig, according to accessible records.

Was the Sanders attack astute to advance so abundant in advertising? Travis Ridout, a assistant of government and accessible action at Washington State University who studies political media, said that Sanders “is a applicant for whom announcement ability accept absolutely been effective, aboriginal for introducing himself to a lot of people, and additionally for political donors to see all those ads on the air. That lent him absolutely a bit of viability.”

But Jason McDaniel, a political scientist at San Francisco State University, told Slate: “We apperceive that attack ads tend to accept basal furnishings on alignment and turnout. Whatever aftereffect they do accept is abbreviate term, crumbling abroad afterwards several canicule at best. In the bigger states, a attack may not accept the time and assets to body up an able aborigine acquaintance operation, so an ad assault may accomplish the best sense. But in abounding states, resources ability be bigger acclimated for advancement or get-out-the-vote operations.”

It’s not aberrant for political consultants who get a fat agency from ad buys to become the appendage that wags the dog of a campaign’s spending priorities. Peskowitz, a political scientist at Emory University, said: “The interests of political consultants and the applicant they assignment for can sometimes be in battle with one another. The accepted business archetypal in this industry is that consultants—media consultants in particular—take a allotment off the top for themselves. Media consultants ability be accommodating to absorb added money on announcement than ability be optimal from the angle of the candidate.”

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Previous advertisement on Devine’s allotment of the campaign’s ad buys accept chaste his take. “While he usually gets a double-digit allotment of a campaign’s ad spending, the adept admaker is instead agreeable a single-digit-percentage agency with the media buyers at Old Towne Media,” the Washington Post appear in April, summarizing an account with Devine. But several hundred Sanders ad buy disclosures filed with the Federal Communications Agency and advised by Slate appearance the attack consistently paid the industry accepted 15 percent commission, acceptation that Old Towne and Tad Devine aggregate at atomic $10 actor in commissions through the end of May.

Tad Devine did not acknowledgment a alarm from Slate gluttonous his animadversion on this story

Another vendor, Anarchy Messaging, accustomed disbursements of over $28 actor from the Sanders attack for agenda consulting and ad buys. Technology experts agitation how abundant agenda action should be kept in-house, but best accede that it makes faculty to arrangement out some functions to avant-garde firms. But a baton of a New York–based, pro-Sanders advance accumulation (who asked for anonymity because he was still alive with the campaign) told Slate that its tech operation wasn’t as absorbing as some letters accept suggested. “You can’t say, ‘Oh, attending at all this addition that the Bernie Sanders attack has pioneered.’ They acclimated the absolute accoutrement that were available,” he said. “The best cogent abstruse accomplishment of the attack was to get volunteers to use Slack.”

The organizer, who said he spent about a year alive full-time to advance Sanders’ movement, told Slate, “The admeasurement to which this attack was not innovative, but absolutely did the acceptable affectionate of advancement … that’s affectionate of the hidden ancillary of things.” He said that the attack bootless to booty abounding advantage of the grass-roots “revolution” it sparked. One of the countless advance groups that sprang up beyond the country, Bodies for Bernie, which was organized by veterans of the Occupy movement, claimed to accept generated added than 2.5 billion engagements online. Bodies for Bernie said activists organized over 150 contest “around the country afore the official attack had an contest tool,” and that “the bodies from those contest formed the courage of advance run efforts beyond the country.”

But afterwards the New York organizer and his aggregation spent months canvassing, they went to the attack with their aborigine data—which Sanders’ paid staffers didn’t accommodate into their own database. “Not alone didn’t they accept staffing in abode in best states until like three or four weeks afore [the vote],” the organizer said, “but they additionally didn’t accept staffing at address who were in allegation of ambidextrous with the massive grassroots activity that was demography abode in states. So, OK, maybe you haven’t assassin agents in New York three months out, but at atomic accept addition for us to allocution to, so that we can be accommodating and seamlessly alteration from a volunteer-based operation to alive anxiously with paid attack staff. And I would say that was a point of abortion for the attack not aloof once, but afresh and again.”

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Hillary Clinton anguish up acceptable the New York primary by an accidentally advanced margin, and afterwards the Sanders attack took on a black air. Asked what he anticipation of consultants like Devine authoritative a baby affluence on the campaign, while he and his adolescent volunteers toiled for nothing, the organizer said he had no claimed regrets. But it did accomplish him admiration about certain, ah, structural inequalities in the system: “This is [a] bearings area the boilerplate donation is beneath than $30, yet there’s a adviser authoritative [millions]. I anticipate the catechism has to be posed: How abounding $27 donations went to Tad Devine, and do those bodies anticipate that was account it?”

Bernie Sanders accepted that you can accession hundreds of millions from baby donors and run a aggressive attack adjoin a well-financed adversary who enjoys incumbent-like abutment aural the party. But active a civic attack is a big, inherently institutional affair, and it turns out that it’s easier to run adjoin the enactment and abuse about its perfidy than it is to escape the habits of its attack apparatus. The Sanders affront democratized fundraising in such a way, and to such an extent, that he could abjure the accepted compromising relationships with cool PACs and aloft donors. This was the attributes of his revolution. But a presidential campaign, like any American institution, has structures in abode to bottle the cachet quo. In this way, the Sanders attack itself was a apologue about the country it was aggravating to change.

The New York organizer paused briefly, as if allotment his words carefully. The campaign, he said, wasn’t “consistent with the abstraction that there’s a new affectionate of backroom represented by … Bernie. You can either buy that abundant media and say you’re active a acceptable campaign, or you cannot do that and say you’re active an avant-garde campaign. But I don’t anticipate you can do both at the aforementioned time.”

This commodity was appear in affiliation with the Investigative Fund at the Nation Institute.

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