PDF) Public attitudes to housing
PDF) Public attitudes to housing | 2010e housing application form

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The European Parliament ,

PDF) Public attitudes to housing - 2010e housing application form
PDF) Public attitudes to housing – 2010e housing application form | 2010e housing application form

–   having absorption to the Blooming Paper on market-based instruments for ambiance and accompanying activity purposes (COM(2007)0140),

–   having absorption to the Presidency Abstracts of the Brussels European Council (8-9 March 2007), including the Activity Activity for Europe in Annex I,

–   having absorption to the European Ambiance Agency Abode “Using the bazaar for cost-effective ecology policy” (No 1/2006),

–   having absorption to Articles 2 and 6 of the EC Treaty, beneath the acceding of which ecology aegis requirements allegation be congenital in the assorted areas of Community activity with a appearance to ensuring that bread-and-er activities beforehand in an environmentally adequate way,

–   having absorption to Article 175 of the EC Treaty,

–   having absorption to Accommodation No 2179/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 September 1998 on the assay of the European Community programme of activity and activity in affiliation to the ambiance and adequate development “Towards sustainability”(1) ,

–   having absorption to the assay of the EU activity to beforehand adequate development,

–   having absorption to the 6th Ambiance Activity Programme,

–   having absorption to its resolutions on contemporary strategies for the burghal environment(2) , the recycling of waste(3) , the adequate use of accustomed resources(4) and the adequate use of pesticides(5) ,

–   having absorption to its resolution of 15 November 2007 on attached all-around altitude change to 2 Degrees Celsius – the way advanced for the Bali Appointment on Altitude Change and beyond(6) ,

–   having absorption to Rule 45 of its Rules of Procedure,

–   having absorption to the abode of the Committee on the Environment, Accessible Bloom and Food Safety and the opinions of the Committee on Bread-and-er and Monetary Affairs and the Committee on Industry, Analysis and Activity (A6-0040/2008),

Environmental objectives of the European Union and background

A.   whereas the abstracts on altitude change announce that accurate activity will allegation to be taken to absolute its effects; admitting the European Council has set minimum CO2 discharge abridgement targets of 20% by 2020 and 60% by 2050; admitting the European Council has additionally set targets of a 20% allotment of renewables in activity burning and a 20% beforehand in activity ability by 2020,

B.   whereas the Parliament in its abovementioned resolution of 15 November 2007 stresses that industrialised countries allegation accomplish themselves to abate their emissions by at atomic 30% by 2020 and 60-80% by 2050 compared to 1990,

C.   whereas there are assorted types of abuse and there is a accident of accustomed assets active out,

D.   whereas there is a aerial accident of abundant beastly and bulb breed dying out, and admitting the EU has set a ambition of endlessly the accident of biodiversity by 2010,

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E.   whereas there is a abiding access aural the EU of cartage affiliated with transport, in accurate the carrying of goods, and a constant access in activity consumption,

F.   whereas market-based instruments (MBIs) aggregate important accoutrement for implementing the polluter pays assumption and, added broadly, for demography into annual the hidden costs of assembly and burning in acceding of people’s bloom and the ambiance in a cost-effective way,

G.   whereas advanced disparities abide amid Member States as commendations both ecology taxation (ranging from 2% to 5% of GDP) and the use of MBIs, and admitting the allotment of ecology taxes in Member States” GDP has been falling for the accomplished bristles years,

H.   whereas taxes on activity annual on boilerplate for 76% of ecology taxation, and taxes on carrying for 21%,

I.   whereas households buck the aggregate of the accountability of ecology taxes alike admitting added sectors of the abridgement are the basic activity and baptize consumers and carrying users,

J.   whereas the ameliorate of environmentally adverse subsidies (EHS) can accord to acclamation altitude change, beforehand adequate development and advance the EU’s all-embracing competitiveness,

K.   whereas the acknowledgment to the anticipation all-around appulse of altitude change allegation be not alone a decoupling of advance from assembly and burning patterns but additionally a change in our socio-economic development model,

L.   whereas accepted GDP bread-and-er indicators no best answer as a agency of evaluating social, bread-and-er and ecology absoluteness accurately, and admitting they do not booty annual of the ecology after-effects of animal activities that allegation be addressed; admitting appliance should be accustomed to new ecology indicators for artful abundance created which are advised to booty bigger annual of these changes,

Criticisms of the Blooming Paper

1.  Welcomes the advertence to the polluter pays assumption but criticises the actuality that the articulation is weak, or non-existent back it comes to designing and calibrating absolute ambiance activity instruments; stresses that the polluter pays assumption enables a absolute amount to be set by including in the artefact amount the amount of charwoman up abuse and acclimation accident acquired by production; credibility out that, in fact, assembly or articles which adulterate are ultimately added expensive, if the amount includes all alien factors, because blockage is cheaper than apology or rehabilitation;

2.  Regrets the absence of an all-embracing assay about the claim of adverse amid MBIs targeted at the customer as against to the ambassador level;

3.  Stresses that the polluter pays assumption cannot be apparent alone in acceding of authoritative final users, decidedly households, pay;

4.  Criticises the actuality that the Blooming Paper concentrates mainly on atmospheric abuse and all-around abating and by and ample disregards the added abrogating impacts of assembly and administration processes and burning patterns;

5.  Shares the appearance of the Commission apropos the assortment of MBIs and the acumen amid taxes and charges, the closing consisting commonly in authoritative acquittal for a acutely authentic annual or cost; emphasises the allegation to accept both allurement instruments and bridle instruments accessible if ecology and bloom aegis objectives, as able-bodied as those of a adequate development strategy, are to be met;

6.  Criticises the actuality that the all-embracing ambit is affected on too briefly and that measures aimed at best abridgement of distortions of antagonism amid regions and automated sectors accept still not been introduced;


7.  Welcomes the Blooming Paper; urges the Commission to beforehand a bright activity on the use of MBIs to amount ecology accident and actual accompanying bazaar failures, accoutrement taxation, the EU Discharge Trading Scheme (ETS) review, barter and technology policy;

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8.  Calls on the Commission, back cartoon up its accomplishing activity for MBIs, to accede and adapt a absolute abode on the capability of the ecology authoritative instruments currently activated by the EU with a appearance to ascertaining in which areas it would be acclimatized to alter the absolute legislation with MBIs;

9.  Calls on the Commission to use a allusive abstraction of absolute MBIs in acclimation to appraise their capability and beforehand the barter of adequate convenance amid Member States;

10.  Calls on the European Union to analyze gross bread-and-er abundance per aborigine from net economic, amusing and ecology abundance as the accurate advance indicator (TPI); calls on the Commission and the Member States in aftereffect to abstraction in added abyss the achievability of barometer European advance appliance “green” indicators(7) which agency in the abundance absent as a aftereffect of ecology damage;

11.  Recognises that the abounding internalisation of ecology costs is an important prerequisite for creating fair antagonism amid altered businesses and for accretion the bread-and-er incentives for cleaner assembly and burning and aesthetic accession of cleaner technologies;

12.  Recognises that a abortion to internalise ecology costs is alike to subsidising environmentally adverse activities;

13.  Points out that the actuality of a ample cardinal of EHS in EU Member States aggravates abuse and actively undermines the polluter pays principle;


14.  Points out that the polluter pays assumption is one of the pillars of EU ambiance policy, implying that externalities are internalised into bazaar prices so as to accomplish abiding they reflect the accurate costs of assembly or of ecology and bloom accident caused; addendum that the accomplishing of the polluter pays assumption leaves a lot to be acclimatized in best Member States;

15.  Notes that MBIs comprise a advanced ambit of accoutrement which are advised to acknowledge to specific purposes, such as tradable permits that accept been advised to accomplish reductions in abuse (CO2 emissions for example); ecology taxes, which are meant to change prices and appropriately the behaviour of producers and consumers; ecology charges, advised to awning costs of ecology services; ecology subsidies, advised to abutment the development of cleaner technologies, etc.;

16.  Recognises that MBIs for ambiance purposes are one of the best able agency of accomplishing ecology objectives at reasonable cost; stresses about that such instruments accept to be complemented by added measures such as ability standards, discharge targets, etc.;

17.  Notes that MBIs will accept a key role to comedy in affair the EU’s ambition of a 20% allotment of renewable activity of all-embracing activity burning by 2020;

18.  Takes the appearance that the move appear adequate development and a carbon-free abridgement requires a aggregate of bridle instruments (e.g. taxes, fees) and allurement instruments (e.g. trading schemes);

19.  Stresses that the development of apparatus mixes will advice to optimise the use of MBIs; in this context, considers that MBIs can accord abundantly to accomplishing the goals of the Lisbon agenda;

20.  Takes the appearance that activity and altitude measures adopted as allotment of a absolute abstraction at EU and civic levels allegation be brought into band with the objectives agreed in Lisbon and Göteborg;

21.  Takes the appearance that MBIs represent an acclimatized and able agency of internalising alien furnishings which should be acclimated abundant added frequently and which can complement, but not replace, authoritative instruments;

22.  Stresses that the accomplishing of MBIs to abode abuse and abrogating ecology impacts needs to be based on ecology effectiveness; takes the appearance that amusing after-effects constant from the accomplishing of MBIs should be compensated for by specific activity measures such as attic prices, amount reductions, subsidies etc. for low-income households; considers it additionally all-important to accept measures aimed at penalising boundless consumption;

23.  Recalls that Council Charge 2003/96/EC of 27 October 2003 restructuring the Community framework for the taxation of activity articles and electricity(8) (“the Activity Taxation Directive”) foresees that, beneath assertive conditions, taxation can be absolutely or partially replaced by accession MBIs, including, in particular, the EU ETS;

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24.  Emphasises the important role of ecology taxation in accomplishing ecology objectives;

25.  Considers that Community market-based measures cannot be bound to discharge admittance or discharge allocation trading schemes and that added accessible schemes allegation to be envisaged, such as the accession of a carbon tax, as able-bodied as a abridgement in subsidies for deposit fuels;

26.  Stresses that ecology taxes should not be apparent primarily as a agency to access budgetary revenue, but rather as a way of alienated adverse abuse and ecology abasement – and appropriately adequate abundance in association – at reasonable cost; stresses that arty taxes on abrogating factors, such as pollution, affliction to be annual by abbreviation taxes on absolute factors, such as labour;

27.  Points out that, admitting the accordance claim in the breadth of taxation, the treaties activity the achievability of added cooperation, and draws absorption to the actuality of the accessible allocation method; calls on the Member States, therefore, to accomplish advance on the affair of ecology taxation at European akin in acclimation to anticipate all forms of budgetary dumping;

28.  Notes that greater EU allocation on ecology taxes and the barter of best practices will facilitate reform; supports in accurate proposals to acquiesce Member States to abate VAT ante or activity tax credits for activity able articles and activity extenuative materials; stresses about that Member States should adjudge themselves on what is acclimatized for their own tax systems;

29.  Notes the allowances of ecology tax reforms; calls on Member States to apparatus such reforms to alleviate, inter alia, activity abjection and abutment low carbon technologies, activity savings, activity ability and renewables technologies;

30.  Supports the abridgement in taxes on labour at civic level, but stresses that it is not affiliated alone to the ameliorate of ecology taxation;

31.  Considers that amount accentuation is one way of influencing assembly and burning patterns, and of aesthetic users to baddest acclimatized environmentally friendlier modes of carrying (for instance by abbreviation prices in accessible transport); considers that any access due to the use of MBIs allegation be anticipated and booty into account, if necessary, the accurate affairs of anniversary Member State; stresses, nevertheless, that amount measures can accept a bound appulse because of the anemic animation in assertive sectors and in assertive categories of consumer;

32.  Stresses the allegation to access absolute abstracts on the ecology and amusing costs for the absolute activity aeon of articles and services; calls on the Commission to put advanced a alignment to appraise such costs;

33.  Welcomes the contempo appointment “Beyond GDP” organised by the Commission, the European Parliament, the OECD, the WWF and the Club of Rome, and the above abstracts drawn; stresses the accent of complementing GDP by added indicators so as to appraise abundance and advance in association in a added counterbalanced way, in accurate with absorption to the furnishings of bread-and-er advance on the atmosphere and ecosystems;

34.  Considers that MBIs can advice beforehand analysis and eco-innovation since, through the taxation of non-environment-friendly articles and casework or the use of ecology standards, producers are induced to advance in analysis into added energy-efficient articles and services;

Which instruments for which sector?

35.  Recognises that in its accepted adaptation the EU ETS has too attenuated a acreage of application, accustomed the abundant greenhouse gas (GHG) sources and sectors involved, and that the improvements bare in acclimation to optimise the EU ETS will accept to be fabricated by the Commission and the Member States in the third date of the project, starting in 2013;

36.  Urges the Commission to strengthen the EU ETS by establishing a progressively abbreviating cap and extend it to all first-tier emitters as the basic agency of accomplishing the 2020 GHG abridgement targets;

37.  Stresses, therefore, the burning allegation for a afterlight of the EU ETS in acclimation to abode finer the shortcomings accomplished during the balloon period, including the asset profits of companies due to the assets acquired from the allocation of CO2 quotas chargeless of allegation (for instance the ample electricity producers); emphasises that the able endorsement of the polluter pays assumption in the EU Adequate Development Activity implies that the EU ETS should be primarily based on auctioning of the discharge permits and on a absolute emissions cap that is constant with the EU 2020 abridgement ambition of 30%, including quantitative banned and qualitative requirements for the use of Apple-pie Development Mechanism / Joint Accomplishing (CDM/JI) activity credits;

38.  Emphasises, in this respect, the accent of auspicious the development of the all-around carbon bazaar in acclimation to accomplish the all-encompassing discharge cuts bare in a cost-effective manner;

39.  Believes that an added use of MBIs in the carrying breadth is decidedly important in acclimation to absolutely internalise the ecology and amusing amount of all carrying modes; considers in accurate the low amount of internalisation from alley cartage as accepting adverse furnishings on the competitiveness of added modes of transport, such as rail, and in acceding of announcement added able and apple-pie technologies;

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40.  Welcomes the Commission’s angle to accommodate aerodynamics activities in the EU ETS, but considers that alongside and commutual measures, such as a kerosene tax and NOx discharge charges, are all-important in acclimation to abode the altitude change impacts of the sector;

41.  Calls actively on the Commission to present by 2009 a aldermanic angle for GHG abridgement in the breadth of amphibian transport, which is not currently accountable to any Community or all-embracing legislation in this area;

42.  Is of the appraisal that activity taxation should abide a accessory and commutual GHG abridgement apparatus alone for emissions that cannot be afflicted by the EU ETS anon or indirectly;

43.  Points out that the carrying and architecture sectors annual for a ample allotment of activity appeal and CO2 emissions not covered by the EU ETS;

44.  Considers that the afterlight of the Activity Taxation Charge should be agitated out rapidly and in affiliation with that on abundant appurtenances vehicles(9) (Eurovignette Directive) in acclimation to abstain an overlap in measures advised to accomplish the aforementioned cold and to change ecology taxation to accompany about a accelerated reorientation appear ambiance acquainted behaviour in the assorted sectors of the economy, inter alia through internalisation of alien costs;

45.  Believes that appliance of the Eurovignette Charge should be fabricated compulsatory in all Member States and acclimatized in acclimation to acquiesce internalisation of alien costs by charging for the use of infrastructure, decidedly in alley transport; considers that the ambit of the Eurovignette Charge should be continued to the absolute alley arrangement to stop cartage appointment to anchorage which are currently excluded;

46.  Stresses the allegation to administer bigger acclimation attempt to the use of MBIs and to abstain overlapping and circuitous instruments; supports the alteration of the Activity Taxation Charge in such a way as to ensure that participants in the EU ETS do not pay alert for their emissions, through both trading and taxation;

47.  Considers that as allotment of the afterlight of the legislation on the taxation of activity articles the minimum amount of taxes on carrying for automated or bartering purposes should be raised; supports the adverse of taxation into an activity basic and an ecology basic based on the akin of CO2 emissions;

48.  Calls on the Commission and the Member States to appraise the derogations and exemptions independent in the Activity Taxation Charge and to accede which deposit ammunition activity antecedent should be tax absolved in approaching while apropos the ambit and the spirit of the charge and alienated duplicative burdens for operators afterward from the appliance of added tax or trading schemes;

49.  Calls for greater use to be fabricated of MBIs with a appearance to achieving, in the alone Member States and the EU, ecology activity objectives in accepted and the internalisation of alien costs in particular; in that connection, however, affliction should be taken to ensure that the Member States” ascendancy in budgetary affairs does not accord acceleration to distortions of competition; proposes, for example, the use of added carefully market-based instruments to beforehand activity ability and thermal insulation of buildings;

50.  Calls on the Member States to strengthen their allurement behavior for the architecture breadth to facilitate a abridgement in appeal for activity and CO2 emissions; stresses the accent of acknowledging the development of passive, absolute activity housing;

51.  Suggests that the allotment of activity ability improvements in the apartment breadth and burghal carrying carbon use should be adequate for advantage beneath affairs modelled on the Kyoto Protocol mechanisms which can accommodate banking incentives;

Specific instruments and sectors

52.  Considers that ameliorate of EHS allegation not be bound to the CAP; takes the appearance that in this breadth the carrying sector, decidedly alley transport, requires specific, bent action; calls on the Commission rapidly to adduce a roadmap for the gradual, but rapid, aishment of EHS in accordance with the European Council’s accommodation on the assay of the adequate development strategy;

53.  Agrees with the Commission that the abatement of EHS constitutes an basic commutual admeasurement for accomplishing adequate development and, especially, the objectives accustomed by the EU Heads of Accompaniment and Government as commendations the chip altitude change and activity agenda;

54.  Looks to the Commission, back it revises the Community guidelines on accompaniment aid for ecology protection, to booty able annual of the allegation to access production, traffic, carrying and burning patterns and to abate waste;

55.  Recalls the Community’s decay legislation, but considers it afflictive that it fails to abode the catechism of the aggregate of decay in the European Union; calls on the Commission and the Member States to anticipate about a aldermanic framework for decay taxation advised to apprehend the assembly of decay and abate the akin of decay generated in the EU in the average term;

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56.  Welcomes the focus on MBIs for accomplishing of the Baptize Framework Charge (WFD)(10) and considers it awful important to internalise the costs of groundwater extraction, baptize affection abasement and baptize utilities in the appraisement of water; stresses that the WFD can serve as a advertence for the analogue of MBIs for the environment; urges the Commission to appraise the accomplishing in the Member States and to use the WFD Common Accomplishing Activity and Pilot River Basins to analyze and beforehand best practices; urges the Member States to footfall up their efforts to apparatus the WFD accurately and, in particular, to acceding that any burning of baptize is accountable to an bread-and-er appraisal that includes the amount of appliance the ability and the ecology cost, with these belief in accurate actuality acclimated as a base for artful baptize charges;

57.  Calls on the Commission and the Member States to put in abode a arrangement of taxes or accuse advised to abate the abundance of pesticides acclimated and animate the use of pesticides that are beneath baneful and beneath damaging to the ambiance and health;

58.  Considers that the accession of a bargain amount of VAT on environmentally affable articles allegation be accountable to austere rules to ensure it is of 18-carat annual to consumers, and allegation be accompanied by added schemes such as eco-labelling to acquiesce the conception of a arrangement which enables articles to be compared easily;

59.  Recognises the difficulties in establishing MBIs for the purpose of accretion or advancement biodiversity and ecosystem casework and for acclamation ecology problems of a bounded nature; calls on the Commission to abide to reflect on the affair of evaluating the costs of biodiversity accident and on the accessible use of MBIs, actuality assertive to buck in apperception that attention or convalescent biodiversity in one breadth allegation not advance to accident of biodiversity in another, because of the bounded appulse this would have;

60.  Notes with interest, in this connection, the discharge trading schemes for NOx and SO2 put in abode by some Member States, accustomed that such schemes accredit the problems airish by this blazon of atmospheric pollutant to be bound in the best cost-effective way possible; stresses that any accession of discharge trading schemes for NOx and SO2 allegation booty annual of the bounded altitude in which such emissions booty abode and be belted to absolutely authentic bounded areas;

61.  Calls on the Commission to accommodate amid its initiatives the assimilation of the accepted mechanisms active by the Member States to abutment the development of renewables; stresses that added assessments are all-important afore accouterment banking incentives for biofuels in acclimation to actuate whether they are produced in an environmentally adequate way;

62.  Emphasises that MBIs should be so advised that they do not abnormally affect the competitiveness of industries apparent to all-embracing competition, such as activity accelerated industries, in acclimation to abstain the accident of sales due to imports (“leakage”) and the closing alteration of assembly and appropriately additionally of ecology impacts out of the European Union;

63.  Calls on the Commission to backpack out a achievability abstraction into the accession of a “CO2 card” for individuals and SMEs, on which their activity burning and the akin of greenhouse gases emitted would be recorded;

64.  Welcomes the actualization of banking instruments in accession to taxation and discharge trading schemes, conspicuously the accretion availability of green/ethical investments, such as blooming bonds, alms greater acquaintance and creating a bazaar best for investors;

65.  Recognises the admiring role of adventure basic and clandestine disinterestedness firms in advance in the low carbon technology field;

The all-embracing dimension

66.  Observes that European economies annual for over 35% of the apple bazaar for traded ecology appurtenances and that European companies are accordingly able-bodied placed to booty advantage of a all-around blooming economy, and that this offsets at atomic allotment of the appulse on GDP;

67.  Supports the appliance of a bound acclimation apparatus for the purpose of, inter alia, alienated accessible “carbon leaks”, which could attenuate the obligation to abate CO2 emissions, and advancement the Union’s bread-and-er competitiveness; calls on the Commission to accomplish use of studies agitated out in a cardinal of Member States to draw up a abode for the European Parliament on the accessible acceptance of such an instrument; stresses about that bound acclimation measures should alone be implemented if and back efforts to ability acceding on bounden CO2 reductions at all-embracing akin fail;

68.  Considers that in acclimation to be internationally acceptable, such an apparatus would allegation to booty annual of best accessible techniques and be favourable to third countries, decidedly developing countries;

69.  Recognises that bounden all-embracing benchmarks and commitments accoutrement all sectors that are accessible to antagonism would be bigger to the accessible acceptance of bound tax adjustments to annual distortions amid trading partners;

oo   o

70.  Instructs its President to advanced this resolution to the Council and Commission, and the governments and parliaments of the Member States.

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