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A. Kent MacDougall is assistant emeritus of journalism at the University of California, Berkeley.

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The Bush administration’s abnegation of administrative ambitions clashes not abandoned with what best of the angel sees as this nation’s assumed assailment in Iraq and drive for all-around domination. It additionally departs from U.S. attitude accustomed in the aboriginal years of the republic and the colonial era that preceded it.

Compare George W. Bush’s claim, “We do not seek an empire,” Colin Powell’s affirmation, “We accept never been imperialists,” and Donald Rumsfeld’s clincher, “We don’t do empire,” with the Founding Fathers’ artlessness in declaring their administrative aspirations. George Washington alleged the beginning nation “a ascent empire.” John Adams said it was “destined” to bury all North America. And Thomas Jefferson beheld it as “the backup from which all America, North and South, is to be peopled.”

Nor were the Founding Fathers coy about advice their priorities for territorial expansion. They proclaimed their absorbed to extend the new nation westward to the Mississippi River and beyond. They vowed to agitate the Floridas apart from Spain’s aged grasp. They agreed that Canada charge be bedeviled and annexed. As aboriginal as 1761, Benjamin Franklin targeted Cuba and Mexico for aggression, and he afterwards aing Samuel Adams in agitating for avaricious the absolute West Indies. Jefferson went so far as to beforehand that the United States had the appropriate to prohibit added countries from canoeing in Gulf Stream amnion in both the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean on the affected area that this warm-water accepted was actually aloof an addendum of the Mississippi River.

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The Founding Fathers fit their accomplishments to their aspirations. George Washington was active in bottomward the French and Indian War in the name of King George II and on account of land-speculating elite in Virginia. The gentry, Washington amid them, had ambitions to advertise acreage and anatomy settlements west of the Appalachian Mountains. But Native Americans and their French allies already active the land. Afterwards the French spurned a appeal that they abjure from the Upper Ohio Valley, the twenty-two-year-old Washington led a disengagement of 160 Virginia colonial militiamen into the acknowledged territory. Although no accompaniment of war existed, Washington’s men fell at night aloft an billet of thirty-one Frenchmen, who the French said were on a adept mission, and dead ten of them, including their leader. This act of assailment triggered what American academy books alarm the French and Indian War, but abounding historians accredit to as the Seven Years War (1754–1761) and others as the Abundant War for the Empire, absorption the actuality that the battle in North America was abandoned allotment of an absolute war for angel ascendancy amid Britain and France and their corresponding allies that was waged on three oceans and three continents.

The Accord of Paris that assured the war beggared France of all its territories on the North American abstemious and “fulfilled the fondest dreams of the American authority builders,” according to Richard W. Van Alstyne in The Ascent American Authority (1960). “The absolute approaching of the beginning American authority adequate aloft the celebration of 1763.”

Several of the Founding Fathers benefited financially from the aperture of western lands. Washington bought up acreage claims that had been accustomed his soldiers in lieu of salary, and he additionally invested in added abstract absolute acreage ventures of the period, including the Ohio Company, the Mississippi Company, and the Abundant Dismal Swamp Company.

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Franklin additionally alternate in western acreage speculations alike as he declared to the House of Commons that his adolescent Americans had lived in “perfect accord with both French and Indians,” had no affair with territorial disputes amid the British and French, and had unselfishly appear to Britain’s abetment in what had been “really a British war” to aggrandize the bazaar for assertive English manufacturers. This adulteration of motives and contest helped authorize a attitude of official cover-ups, distortions, and absolute lies that accept persisted and proliferated to this day.

Franklin, who deserves the appellation of “America’s aboriginal abundant expansionist,” according to Gerald Stourzh, columnist of Benjamin Franklin and American Foreign Policy (1954), agilely accurate expansionism not aloof westward but arctic and southward as well. As editor of the account Pennsylvania Gazette in 1741, he accustomed the accord of 3,600 adolescent colonials, mostly from Pennsylvania, in a British beforehand on the Spanish anchorage of Cartagena in Colombia. The three-month annoy failed. But freebooting voyages to the Caribbean by argosy from Philadelphia and added ports captured about 2,500 Spanish and French merchant ships and reaped astronomic profits for both the buccaneers and the colonial beach merchants who exported bogus appurtenances to the Caribbean in barter for amoroso and molasses to accumulation colonial distilleries.

Franklin admired the achievement of these distilleries as advantageous in allowance North America of Native Americans adverse colonial expansion. “If it be the architecture of Providence to abate these agents in adjustment to accomplish allowance for the cultivators of the earth, it seems not doubtful that rum may be the appointed means,” he wrote. Adolescent Founding Fathers aing Ben in answer indigenous cleansing by demonizing Native Americans as “beasts of prey” (Washington), annihilation “blood hounds” (John Adams), and “merciless Indian savages” (Jefferson).

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Ethnic cleansing wasn’t aloof for Indians alone, however. French settlers in Acadia, as the amphibian ambit of Canada were again known, were subjected to it as well. In 1613, abandoned six years afterwards its founding, the Jamestown, Virginia antecedents of English adventurers attacked and destroyed the French antecedents of Anchorage Royal in what is now Nova Scotia. In 1654, Massachusetts attacked several Acadian settlements. In 1690 and 1691, Boston organized invasions of Acadia. And in 1709, New Englanders aing British argosy armament in an aggression of Acadia and bedeviled the rebuilt Anchorage Royal the afterward year.

British access of Acadia during the French and Indian War and accumulation deportations of French-speaking Acadians opened Nova Scotia to New England acreage speculators and settlers. “An barrage of agriculture families, chiefly from the Connecticut valley, ensued during the aing few years so that Nova Scotia—‘New Scotland’—became in actuality an addendum of New England,” historian Van Alstyne noted.

Yet the Americans remained dissatisfied. They capital all of Canada. The War for Independence gave them their opportunity. The Continental Congress anesthetized resolutions benign the “liberation” and addition of Canada. Though Canada remained aloof in the affray amid the colonies and Britain, the Americans invaded it nonetheless. The aim was territorial aggrandizement, as John Adams fabricated bright back he wrote that “Canada charge be ours; Quebec charge be taken.”

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After the invasions failed, Congress beatific Franklin and two added commissioners to allure the Canadians into the American union—but to no avail. In negotiations for the accord accord that concluded the War for Independence, Franklin argued that Canada was actually all-important for American “security.” He said Britain care to abalienate it to achieve the affair of reparations, as a badge of its artlessness apropos reconciliation, to abstain approaching animosity and to adhesive an accord with the new United States.

Frustrated by Britain’s abnegation to accord up Canada peacefully, Americans approved thirty years afterwards to appropriate it by force. Former admiral Jefferson accustomed the War of 1812 as accouterment an befalling to assuredly band Britain “of all her backing on this continent.” Yet several invasions of Canada accepted futile, while the wanton afire of bigoted assembly houses in York, now Toronto, prompted the British to retaliate by afterwards ambience blaze to government barrio in Washington.

The United States government paid no added heed to the wishes of Canadians in 1812 than it had nine years beforehand to the estimated 100,000 citizenry of territories acquired in the Louisiana Purchase. In both cases, autonomous attempt of civic freedom and government comatose on the accord of the absolute were accounted not to apply. The allegedly equalitarian Jefferson opined that “our new adolescent citizens are as yet as erfingers of freedom as children.”

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Jefferson advised amplification capital to assiduity republican virtues in the “empire of liberty” he envisioned overspreading both North and South America with agreeing countrymen. He argued that amplification would abrogate or aish alarming neighbors and board a continuing accumulation of acreage to board a growing citizenry of American yeomen farmers. Accordingly, afterwards the Louisiana Purchase angled U.S. area he insisted that “national security” accepted abstraction West Florida from Spain as well.

Albert K. Weinberg, whose densely abundant Manifest Destiny: A Study of Nationalist Expansionism in American History (1935) charcoal an basal account of U.S. imperialism, noted, “Despite the acceleration of America’s territorial domain, the accretion of Louisiana was not followed by a subsidence of expansionism.” On the contrary, Americans connected to attention the nation’s accustomed aals “to be far in beforehand of the aals that they already had.” “Appetite had developed with the eating.”

And so it charcoal to this day. The focus of expansionism confused over time from avaricious and colonizing aing area to a besetting drive for across markets, raw materials, and assisting investments. Throughout, the cardinal elite’s appetence for bread-and-er and political ascendancy has connected to aggrandize in band with centuries-old tradition. Despite pretense from administration functionaries in Washington, now, as ever, authority is as American as angel pie.

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