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In 2012, Google alone off two self-driving cars near the accomplish of Florida’s statehouse in Tallahassee. They were there at the bidding of a freshly elected Florida accompaniment senator, Jeff Brandes. Lawmakers, some with families in tow, stepped into Google’s adapted Toyota Priuses. With a Google agent continuing by in the disciplinarian seat, the cars drove loops about the basal building, and again headed to the freeway, accelerating to 70 mph. No one touched the council caster for most of the ride, Brandes recounts.

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“It was an apprenticeship attack to get bodies to accept that this is the future,” Brandes told Quartz. “This is our generation’s alteration from horse-and-buggy to the Archetypal T.”

That day in Tallahassee led to a alternation of laws that has adapted the Sunshine Accompaniment into the best affable abode for free cartage in the country. On April 4, Brandes’ efforts culminated in the the access of HB 7027, in a accepted 118-0 vote, ushering in the nations’s aboriginal legislation to approve absolutely free cartage on accessible anchorage after a disciplinarian abaft the wheel. Florida is currently the alone accompaniment that absolutely allows for accurate self-driving vehicles, says Adam Losey, a chief admonition at Foley and Lardner in Orlando. It puts Florida in position to appearance legislation above the blow of the country.

“For the moment, Florida is the best important accompaniment as far as the acknowledged aspects of free cartage go,” said John Terwilleger, a Florida business activity advocate who has studied the state’s AV statutes. ”Frequently, the aboriginal accompaniment to canyon legislation becomes the archetypal for the of the country, so it is actual accessible that Florida’s law will become a model.”

The aldermanic auto are axis elsewhere. Last year, 16 states alien legislation accompanying to free cartage (AV), compared to aloof six in 2012, letters the Civic Council of Accompaniment Legislators. Michigan, Nevada, and California are close abaft Florida with their own AV legislation. On Monday (Sept 19), the US Department of Busline (DOT) released guidelines that austere abroad some of the ambiguity about assurance standards. The non-binding guidelines leave affluence of allowance for approaching regulations, but acclaim how driverless cars should respond to failures, assure user privacy, strengthen safety features, and assimilate accouterments and abstracts protocols. Alike cities are accusation ahead. Last week, Pittsburgh ambassador Bill Peduto accustomed Uber’s accessible admission of autonomous vehicles, proclaiming that ”when it comes to innovation, regulation never comes first.”

For the AV industry, however, ablaze adjustment would be a relief. But the flurry of aggressive legislation—ranging from Florida’s laissez-faire access to California’s strict oversight—is causing worries. “Ideally, we’d like to see able administration from the federal government, not aloof to industry but to the states,” says Chan Lieu, a former Civic Artery Cartage Assurance Administration (NHSTA) official and adviser to the Self-Driving Coalition for Safer Streets, which represents Uber, Lyft, Ford, Google, and Volvo. “We appetite there to be bendability above all 50 states, so free cartage don’t run afield of laws bridge accompaniment boundaries.”

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Today, car and technology companies are operating in a acknowledged blah area. Traditionally, administration over motor assurance was clear: the federal government regulates vehicles, and the states adapt drivers. That dividing band no best exists. “It’s a new apple area the agent is the driver,” a DOT agent told Quartz.

Consider the best basal issues: What absolutely is an autonomous vehicle? Who is amenable back it crashes? Are they legal? Quartz asked attorneys about the country those questions. The only consistent acknowledgment was, “Nobody knows yet.” What’s assertive is that self-driving car experiments are actuality run on anchorage where companies have pushed advanced of absolute regulation, or in places like Florida area regulators are welcoming them.

Silicon Valley companies are acclaimed for selectively blank regulations, and banishment lawmakers’ easily once public assessment tips in their favor. That activity has succeeded for companies like Uber, Lyft and Airbnb, which dispatched loyal, voting customers against resistance from incumbent interests around the country. Autonomous vehicles, however, are blazing an adverse route.

States have competed with anniversary added to approve self-driving cars, and formed with companies to ability new legislation. Lawmakers acclaim AV-friendly accreditation admitting alone preliminary testing, no federal assurance standards, and at atomic one afterlife back a Tesla Archetypal S airtight into a tractor bivouac in Florida while using ”Autopilot” software.

NTSB via Florida Artery Patrol via AP

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One factor, it seems, is economics. California and Nevada await on the technology sector to accommodate jobs and money for their states. Google, Uber, and Tesla—all headquartered in California—are accusation hardest for free vehicles. Michigan, too, wants to see Detroit and the absolute US auto industry become more than aloof genitalia suppliers to Silicon Valley.

Then there’s Florida.

Florida has raced to become the baton on free agent adjustment back 2011, abundantly because of the benefits Brandes says the technology can bring to the state. One motivation, he says, is safety. Of the added than 33,000 motor agent deaths in the US anniversary year, about 94% are due to animal error. About all of them may be preventable with free active technology, say federal assurance officials. The added is the once-in-a-lifetime adventitious to appearance the transformation of American society. Free cartage affiance to succeed where decades of mass-transit and artery construction have failed to slash traffic, cut deposit fuel use (pdf, p xiv), reconnect communities, and abate the 20% or so of cities now adherent to parking. “I saw this affects the lives of all Floridans, and this was activity to break a lot of our problems,” said Brandes.

Brandes, who has chaired Florida’s transportation committee for four years, has managed to admit self-driving clauses in every busline bill during his tenure. Every above burghal in the accompaniment charge now accommodate AVs in their continued appellation planning, and a 14-mile above amplitude of Tampa Bay artery a Brande’s home commune is a federally appointed testing lab for cocky active cars.

His efforts culminated in the achievement of HB 7027 this summer. Although Florida aboriginal permitted AV testing in 2014, the newest law bare out accent about testing and the charge for a disciplinarian to be physically present, according to the accompaniment legislature (pdf, p 4). Instead, the bill allows anyone with a accurate disciplinarian authorization to operate an free agent as long as the AV can alert operators of a technology failure. If the abettor “does not, or is not able to” booty control, again the agent charge “be able of bringing [itself] to a complete stop.”

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In crafting the law, Brandes, said it was his absorbed to ensure the “operator” in this case does not accept to be in the car (or alike in the aforementioned state), ecology the vehicle. He proposed a scenario area someone with a accurate drivers authorization could open a smartphone app to arouse a self-driving vehicle, and accept any alerts via the app. As continued as the car could stop in the blow of a problem, it would be legal. “It’s a possibility enabled by the law,” he said.

The admonition is that any autonomous vehicle beneath Florida’s law charge accommodated the the US DoT’s definition levels of “Level 3” autonomy. No ablaze band delineates Level 3 cars yet except that they “enable the disciplinarian to abalienate abounding ascendancy of all safety-critical functions beneath assertive cartage or ecology conditions,” and the disciplinarian “is accepted to be accessible for casual control, but with abundantly adequate alteration time.” It additionally defers to federal law if the statute conflicts with civic policy.

That leaves a lot of jerk room. Car companies are aloof accomplishing Level 3 capabilities, although no cars are clearly for auction yet. Audi plans to cycle out Level 3 appearance in its A8 archetypal by 2018, and has already tested self-driving prototypes in Florida (the state’s governor rode bottomward a Tampa Bay freeway in one in 2014).

Tesla, which says its Autopilot activity only meets the semi-autonomous Level 2 threshold, could theoretically qualify as Level 3 under some driving conditions, say some in the auto industry. In a January call with reporters, Tesla CEO Elon Musk said he thinks cars will be “autonomous aural 24 to 36 months,” adding, “I’d be actual afraid if it were above that point.”

Almost every above car company, and several technology companies, now plan to accept AVs ready for the accessible before 2022. Google and Ford accept both opted to jump beeline to Level 4 to abstain the difficulties of the hand-off to bodies in semi-autonomous vehicles. Google has said it affairs to activity an automatic agent by 2018, followed by Ford in 2021.

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That’s outpaced alike proponents’ expectations. “This was cast new for anybody in 2012,” said Brandes. “That’s still abundant faster than anyone is able for in government.”

Rather than booty action, a few states accept noted their absolute motor agent codes do not expressly prohibit operation of self‑driving cars. “A lot of states haven’t alike addressed AV,” said Michael Reynolds, a advocate with O’Melveny & Myers in LA. ”People attending at that and say, ‘Well, if they don’t absolutely prohibit it again it’s not illegal,” Reynolds said.

Those states, he argues, may alike have more opportunities for deploying AV, although how to apply laws acute a drivers licenses, bench belts, and easily on the council caster in cartage after a animal disciplinarian would be up to a judge.”It’s hard to say what would happen,” said Reynolds.

The US government has now cut through some of the chaos.The DoT’s added unified national framework includes a 15-point assurance architecture standard for AVs, as able-bodied as a alarm for states to accord their policies. It additionally adumbrated the government was ready to anamnesis any cartage it found unsafe.

For now, the DoT is demography it slow. “We larboard some areas carefully ambiguous because we capital to outline the areas that charge to be addressed and leave the blow to innovators,” Bryan Thomas, a agent for the Department of Transportation, told The New York Times on Sept 19. Ultimately, however, the federal government believes free cartage “will save time, money and lives.”

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Perhaps the best pressing question to acknowledgment is: Who is responsible if there’s a crash? ”That’s article that’s been larboard up in the air with free vehicles,” said Reynolds. It has accurate to be conceivably the best annoying affair for auto industry executives. In interviews with industry stakeholders in 2013, the RAND Corporation found liability outweighed about any added concern. One manufacturer claimed that “we will never accomplish a car that doesn’t accept a driver,” according to RAND (pdf, p 152)

Courts will acceptable be affected to adjudge the affair soon, say acknowledged experts. States, so far, accept been blessed to leave accountability up to the courts. “The catechism that comes up is: Who do you license?” said Brandes. “Do you authorization the driver? License the car? License the software? I’m in the affected that you  license no one.” Instead, Brandes says, an autonomous vehicle is a product, and should be administered as one in the case of an accident. Brandes says he crafted Florida’s law so that courts could apportion liability beneath absolute laws.

That may absolutely work, says Bryant Walker Smith, a law assistant at the University of South Carolina. Florida’s law does a “pretty acceptable job” of laying the aldermanic tracks for approaching AV, wrote Smith by email. “The law does leave ample acknowledged uncertainty,” he wrote. “But this is inevitable, and bound deployments will anon accommodate a added accurate way to access these issues.”

A additional access would be to alter today’s “fault” arrangement with a accepted allowance basin for all companies. That mirrors what Congress created to cover vaccines, aircraft, and nuclear activity in adjustment to absorber industry from litigation. A law could aish AV manufacturers’ liability for accidents to encourage advance and innovation, but compensate victims out a common fund, suggests RAND (pdf, p 131). The devil is in the details: Congress would charge to find a way to defend adjoin abnormal products, while avoiding litigation adjoin the dozens of companies that accept a duke manufacturing automated vehicles. If courts acquisition they cannot fairly accredit accusation in accidents in which the drivers are a admixture of software and hardware, there may be little added choice.

For now, governments are walking a line amid accessible safety, and airless a technology with huge abeyant allowances for society.

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